Chunking: Male and Consent Form

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Chunking Words: How Well Does One Recall.

How Well Does One Recall
Heather Brandao
Kean University

Three lists, made up of exhaustive, non-exhaustive, and unrelated words were given to participants to study for 60 seconds. The result indicates that more words were recalled in the exhaustive condition than either non-exhaustive or non-related. However, gender ruled external factors such as noise and distraction may have played a part in an individual’s ability to recall as well as gender. Understanding memory and recall would be beneficial, in hopes that we can improve how well someone uses memory. Introduction

Literature Review
When studying memory many questions are asked, about how it works and are there any limitations to memory. In a study by Cohen (1963), words were placed into the categories, exhaustive words and unrelated words, and it was reported that it was easier for participants to recall exhaustive words than non-exhaustive or unrelated words. In a later study by Chen and Cowan (2005) it was reported that there are limitations as to an individual’s capacity to recall consisting of chunking capacity and length limits which can interfere. Shortly after, Ottem, Lian, Karlsen (2007) reported that there is a relationship between an individual’s age, language abilities, and memory. They concluded that a memory acquired during childhood is due to their chunking capacity. Hypothesis

It was hypothesized that exhaustive words would be better recalled then non exhaustive, it is also predicted that exhaustive words would be recalled much more easily than unrelated words. It also hypothesized that men would recall unrelated words better than women. Method

Participants ranged in age from 18-24, 25 to 31, 32-38 and 39 and up. They were 30 females and 30 males, 60 participants in total. Also shown in Table 1, 35 percent of participants were freshman. Participant’s grades point average ranged from 4.00 to below 2.00. Most of the participants ranged from the 3.00 to 3.49. As seen in Table 1, 38.8 percent of the sample was Caucasian while 76.7 percent was between the ages of 18-24. The proportions of participants that were Hispanic consisted of 8 individuals. The smallest proportions of participants were those who fell into the “Other” category which consisted of 7 individuals. The category for Native Americans consisted of 0 individuals

The materials used were two sheets of white paper, one with the list of words and the assigned answer sheet. The three word lists contained 20 words, one contained exhaustive, non-exhaustive and unrelated words. The answer sheets contained 20 spaces for the participants to write the words they recalled. A stop watch was used to mark the beginning and the end of each session. The stop watches measured to the nearest tenth of a second. The consent form indicated that there were no benefits, risks, and it was voluntary. It also contained the Information needed to contact the primary researcher, if there were any further questions.

A demographic survey included items relative to the participants, gender, age, ethnicity, grade point average, and class standing. A Debriefing form thanked the individual for participating and stated the purpose of the study. It also included the contact information of the primary researcher. A script was designed to provide detailed instructions as to how to administer the studies materials and how the study should be conducted. Procedure

Potential Participants were approached in the hall. If they agreed to participate they were given a consent form to sign and one to keep, then they were asked to fill out the following Demographic survey as well. It was explained what the consent form entitled, and a brief summary about the study. They were also reassured if they have any questions they were more than welcome to contact the primary researcher. They were asked to sign the consent form. They were given the...
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