Topics: Chromosome, Karyotype, Aneuploidy Pages: 4 (895 words) Published: April 15, 2013
I. Karyotype Analysis of Human Chromosomes
1. Karyotype preparation and analysis
Cells (from blood, amniotic fluid, etc) are grown in vitro (in a cell culture dish) to increase their number Cell division is then arrested in metaphase with colchicine (prevents mitotic spindle from forming) Cells are centrifuged and lysed to release chromosomes

Chromosomes are stained, photographed, and grouped by size and banding patterns

This is a photograph of the 46 human chromosomes in a somatic cell, arrested in metaphase. Can you see that they are duplicated sister chromatids? 2. Normal male karyotype (a Cytogeneticist has lined these chromosomes up, matching homologues up and arranging them by size) [pic]

3. Normal female karyotype
II. Alterations in chromosome number:
Nondisjunction occurs when either homologues fail to separate during anaphase I of meiosis, or sister chromatids fail to separate during anaphase II. The result is that one gamete has 2 copies of one chromosome and the other has no copy of that chromosome. (The other chromosomes are distributed normally.) If either of these gametes unites with another during fertilization, the result is aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome number) • A trisomic cell has one extra chromosome (2n +1) = example: trisomy 21. (Polyploidy refers to the condition of having three homologous chromosomes rather then two) • A monosomic cell has one missing chromosome (2n - 1) = usually lethal except for one known in humans: Turner's syndrome (monosomy XO). [pic]

The frequency of nondisjunction is quite high in humans, but the results are usually so devastating to the growing zygote that miscarriage occurs very early in the pregnancy. If the individual survives, he or she usually has a set of symptoms - a syndrome - caused by the abnormal dose of each gene product from that chromosome. [pic]

1. Human disorders due to chromosome alterations in autosomes (Chromosomes 1-22). There only 3 trisomies that result in a...
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