1. To what extent was industrialization responsible for the deplorable conditions of the cities in the early 19th century?
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes that occurred in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. It was causing carelessness in the city and lead to more and dusty pollution from all the work which was required to be put in. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes which had led to this happening. 2. Who was Edwin Chadwick? What role did he play in the public health movement?
Edwin Chadwick was an English social reformer, noted for his work to reform the Poor Laws and improve sanitary conditions and public health. He helped sanitize the areas and basically make them a lot cleaner and just plainly better to live in at the time. For he did not feel that sanitation was a big joke. Sanitization was clearly Chadwick’s main focus at the time. 3. What was the miasmatic theory of disease? How did it retard progress?
The miasmic theory of disease was a theory that disease was caused by bad odors. it prevented the proper treatment of disease and scientific and medical development in the right direction. It did though lead to shorter not harder process of such with many problems coming form it. The miasmic theory would not very much be considered a failure in way though. 4. What contributions did Pasteur, Koch, and Lister make to life in urban Europe?
Pasteur’s theory that germs caused disease helped the advancement of medical sciences and led to the breakthrough of vaccines. Koch helped discover the organism that caused disease and it helped create vaccines. Lister helped develop the idea of cleaning wounds. All these contributions lead to progress in Europe. 5. What were the reasons for the rebuilding of Paris? Who was responsible for this change?