• The first step in determining what statistical test to use is to determine the type of research question to be answered by the statistical analysis. In elementary courses, the two basic types of questions are:

1. the degree of relationship or dependence among variables (H0 = there is no relationship or dependence, and the statistical test answers the question as to whether any relationship or dependence found is sufficiently different from zero that it can be considered “statistically significant”.)

2. the significance of group differences (H0 = there is no difference between groups. The statistical test answers the question as to whether an observed difference is probably due just to random factors, or is large enough to be considered “statistically significant” and due to the treatment factor.)

• The next step is to determine the nature(s) of the variables under discussion, and whether they meet the assumptions of a particular test (e.g. the data are normally distributed).

• Types/levels of data:
– nominal = unordered categories (e.g. religion; country of birth; etc.) – ordinal = ordered categories (e.g. level of agreement on an opinion survey; proficiency level at a martial art as measured by the colour of one’s belt) ➢ For nominal and ordinal data, what is usually recorded is the number of occurrences of a particular result (e.g. number of Christians, number of Buddhists etc. but these numbers are not the values of the variable. In this case, variable = religion, values = Christian, Buddhist, …and the numbers are the number of occurrences of a particular value.) – interval = ordinal + distance between values is of constant size (e.g. temperature) – ratio = interval + (i) there is a meaningful zero and (ii) the ratio between two numbers is meaningful (e.g. weight, distance, number of children) ➢ ratio and interval data can be either discrete (i.e. there are...

...
QoS Techniques: MPLS
CET 2486C – Network Technologies
Professor:
November 27, 2012
Abstract
MPLS or Multi Protocol Label Switching is a networking technology that functions between layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model. MPLS constitutes of adding a label (sometimes called “Shim” because of their placement between layer 3 and layer 2 headers.) to the data package, this label contains special addressing and sometimes prioritization information. Because the MPLS label contains all the information necessary for the router to forward the package to the next hop, the router does not have to spend time analyzing the entire package thus improving network latency or bottlenecks. Due to its multi protocol capabilities MPLS can be integrated with different networking technologies from ATM to native IP environments; in addition, this multi protocol capability also provides a way to converge different types of traffic such as data, voice and video onto one network. MPLS technology also provides some other advantageous features like Traffic Engineering (TE), VPN, Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) and Quality of Service (QoS). This paper will help provide an understanding of how MPLS works and the QoS capabilities it can provide.
History of MPLS
In 1996 a group from Ipsilon Networks introduced a “flow management protocol”, this technology only worked with ATM transmissions and did not become very popular in the market. Not long after Cisco...

...Assumptions and Conditions for using StatisticalTests
Bright Eugene
Imo State University, Owerri
ABSTRACT
All statistical procedures have underlying assumptions, some more stringent than others. In some cases, violation of these assumptions will not change substantive research conclusions. In other cases, violation of assumptions will undermine meaningful research. Establishing that one's data meet the assumptions of the procedure one is using in an expected component of all quantitatively based journal articles, theses, and dissertations.
This write-up provides a general overview of the most common data assumptions which the researcher will encounter in statistical research.
SOUND MEASUREMENT
Descriptive Statistics
All forms of statistical analysis assume sound measurement, relatively free of coding errors. It is good practice to run descriptive statistics on one's data so that one is confident that data are generally as expected in terms of means and standard deviations, and there are no out-of-bounds entries beyond the expected range.
Avoiding Attenuation
When the range of the data is reduced artificially, as by classifying or dichotomizing a continuous variable, correlation is attenuated, often leading to underestimation of the effect size of that variable.
Avoiding Tautological Correlation
When the indicators for latent...

...Matched T-test (four steps of NHT)
Step 1
Scientific (just the written portion)
Null (no effect)
Alternative (there is an effect)
Step 2
Rather than finding standard error we look for standard deviation first. Standard error has a parallel formula to SD. Smd = SD/ sqrt n.
Step 3
Set Alpha to .05 two tailed
Critical value of t. (t table)
Decision rules, either sketch or write out.
Step 4
Conclusion
Mean of difference scores
T-statistic takes the same basic form (statistic minus expected value/SD)
Reported as t(9) = .85, n.s.
Statistical decision (don’t reject null all hypothesis are plausible; reject accept all alternative hypotheses)
Interpretation
Independent group t-tests
The logic of testing hypothesis about the means of two independent groups is the same as for previous statisticaltests
Some minor calculation differences that can seem difficult at first
The test provides a more detailed discussion of the standard deviation
The equation for any test may be thought of as three parts
Sample statistic
Expected value (if H0 is true)
A measure of the variability in the sample statistic
H0 is written as the difference between two means
Two assumptions greatly simplify equations
Homogeneity of Variance: it is assumed that variance in population 1 Is equal to the variance in population 2.
IMPORTANT!!!
The assumption regards the...

...there any significant difference between Buddhist and non-Buddhist in their use of nonviolent strategies to solve problems?
Hypotheses
Null Hypothesis (H₀) : There is no significant difference between Buddhist and non- Buddhist in their use of nonviolent strategies to solve problems
Research Hypothesis (H₁) : There is a significant difference between Buddhist and non- Buddhist in their use of nonviolent strategies to solve problems
Technique used
The technique used when conducting the research question is t-Test of independence.
Reasons for using the technique
The reason why t-Test of independence is used because there are only two group of independent variable, which is Buddhist and non-Buddhist. Besides that, the independent variable is categorical, while the dependent variable is using interval scale.
Another reason for using t-Test of independence is because there are independent groups and the test compares two different groups with each other. Hence, one group cannot be a member of the other group. For this research question, the independent groups are Buddhist and non-Buddhist.
Critical Value
Degree of Freedom
= (N1 - 1) + (N2 - 1)
= (42 – 1) + (18 – 1)
= 41 + 17
= 58
Critical value (use significance level .05) = 2. 00
Calculation
| Buddhist, x | x² | Non-Buddhist, y | y² |
| 4.0 | 16.00 | 3.6 | 12.96 |
| 4.0 | 16.00 | 3.6 | 12.96 |
| 4.0 | 16.00...

...One sample t-test
A one sample t-test allows us to test whether a sample mean (of a normally distributed interval variable) significantly differs from a hypothesized value. For example, using the hsb2 data file, say we wish to test whether the average writing score (write) differs significantly from 50. We can do this as shown below.
ttest write=50
One-sample t test
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variable | Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. [95% Conf. Interval]
---------+--------------------------------------------------------------------
write | 200 52.775 .6702372 9.478586 51.45332 54.09668
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Degrees of freedom: 199
Ho: mean(write) = 50
Ha: mean < 50 Ha: mean ~= 50 Ha: mean > 50
t = 4.1403 t = 4.1403 t = 4.1403
P < t = 1.0000 P > |t| = 0.0001 P > t = 0.0000
The mean of the variable write for this particular sample of students is 52.775, which is statistically significantly different from the test value of 50. We would conclude that this group of students has a significantly higher mean on the writing test than 50.
See also
Stata Textbook Examples. Introduction to the Practice of...

...CHOOSING THE RIGHT SECURITY INVESTMENTS Page 1
Choosing the Right Security Investments and Awareness of All Available Options
CHOOSING THE RIGHT SECURITY INVESTMENTS Page 2
Subject: Information of the different categories of security investments and the way of figuring out what security investment is right for you.
1) What kind of questions you must ask yourself before finalizing your decision of investing in a security?
You must know why you are investing in the security, and in this memo, I will give you a bit of insight on how to figure that out; and tell you what some of the most important questions that you should ask yourself are.
2) What the three categories of security investments are, and what options fall under each?
Many people hear the words “investment securities” and immediately think banks and bonds. However there are three different categories and beneath each are many different options and ways of investing in securities. I will explain these to you in this memo, and having this knowledge will open your eyes to these options, which will ultimately give you and your company the advantage over others.
3) How does each different investment security work, what are the positives and negatives of each, and what investments are better for what kinds of companies?
Once I explain all of the different options for investing...

...Selecting The Right Communication Channel
Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: control, motivation, emotional expression, and information (Robbins, Judge 2011 p.342). Using the appropriate communication channel to convey a message is just as important as the message itself in order to fulfill any of these four functions effectively. In the following three scenarios I will choose the proper communication channel and defend my reasoning for that choice.
Scenario One
In this scenario, a strategy needs to be created to introduce a new beverage into the global market. The team has to be informed of the task, provided proper details and is to develop the strategy within one week. The Vice President also needs to remain informed of the strategy during this process.
Communicating With The Team
Given the tight deadline and the complicated nature of the task, a form of communication high in channel richness is required. “Face-to-face conversation scores highest in channel richness because it transmits the most information per communication episode—multiple information cues (words, postures, facial expressions, gestures, intonations), immediate feedback (both verbal and nonverbal), and the personal touch of being present” (Robbins, Judge 2011 p.358). Therefore, face-to-face conversation would be the proper channel in this situation. Not only does this communication channel meet the requirements for the time sensitive...

...marketing issues, leading transformational change in your organisation and for managing relationships with suppliers and buyers.
You could blunder around, bluff your way through the maze, or simply rely on learning on the job- or you could seriously consider re-skilling with an MBA.
Which MBA is right for you?
Choosing the right MBA program is a good start. The classic, career-changing MBAs are full-time immersion programs. They take 16-months and you'll need to put your job on hold or leave it and get a new job afterwards.
The part-time MBA, which can also be done on week-ends at some business schools, takes longer but provides more flexibility. It means you can combine full-time work with study.
The Executive MBA comprises intensive bouts of residential study in-between several months off, when you return to full-time work. It's a high-level program for senior professionals over 40, with ten years working experience, who have been identified by their employers for the next C-suite role.
All MBAs require substantial investment-not just financially, but more so in time and family support. For this reason, you want to choose a school that does it seriously.
Choosing the right school
Do your homework. There is so much information about business schools, including many rankings. These rankings are public and carry weight. Find out what they are, how they are constructed, and whether they resonate...

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