CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS TO BUILD BRAND EQUITY Brand elements, sometimes called brand identities, are those trademarkable devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. The main brand elements are brand names, URLs, logos, symbols, characters, spokespeople, slogans, jingles, packages, and signage. Independent o f the decisions made about the product and how it is marketed, brand elements can be chosen in a manner to build as much brand equity as possible. That is, according to the customer-based brand equity model, brand elements can be chosen to enhance brand awareness; facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations; or elicit positive brand judgments and feelings. The test of the brand-building ability of brand elements is what consumers would think or feel about the product if they only knew about its brand name, associated logo, and other characteristics. A brand element that provides a positive contribution to brand equity, for example, would be one for which consumers assumed or inferred certain valued associations or responses. CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS In general, there are six criteria in choosing brand elements (as well as more specific choice considerations in each case): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Memorability Meaningfulness Likability Transferability Adaptability
The first three criteriaㅡmemorability, meaningfulness, and likeabilityㅡcan be characterized as “brand building” in nature and concern how brand equity can be built through the judicious choice of a brand element. The latter three, however, are more “defensive” in nature and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in a brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of different opportunities and constraints. The following sections briefly consider each of these general criteria. Memorability A necessary condition for building brand equity is achieving a high level of brand awareness toward that goal, brand elements can be chosen...
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