1.1 History of Biscuit Industry
Biscuits are a very significant part of the food industry in most countries of the world. A biscuit is a small baked product; the exact meaning varies markedly in different parts of the world. The origin of the word "biscuit" is from Latin via Middle French and means "cooked twice" (similar to the German Zwieback). Some of the original biscuits were British naval hard tack. That was passed down to American culture, and hard tack (biscuits) was made through the 19th century. Biscuit can flourish in any environment where there is a base population, in the immediate vicinity of the plant; a country with large population is well suited for a biscuit plant. Biscuit is most suited for local production. This factor alone has made India a big biscuit center. Biscuit Industry has flourished in India enormously over the years and is still growing phenomenally. This growth has funneled a growth of all facets of biscuit making in India. While the modern India is considered a center for software development, many do not realize that one industry that has developed similar capabilities is Biscuit.
2. Biscuit Industry in India
India Biscuits Industry came into major existence and started gaining a sound status in the bakery industry in the later part of 20th century when the urbanized society called for readymade food products at a tenable cost. Biscuits were assumed as sick-man's diet in earlier days. But today it has become one of the most loved fast food products for every age group. Biscuits are always easy to carry, tasty to eat, cholesterol free and reasonable at cost. States that have the larger intake of biscuits are Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh. Maharashtra and West Bengal are the most industrially developed states; hold the maximum amount of consumption of biscuits. Even, the rural sector consumes around 55 % of the biscuits in the bakery products.
The industry has a turnover of over Rs 14,500 crore and volumes of just under 2 million tones. India is known to be third largest manufacture of biscuits, the first is USA and second is China. Biscuit manufacturing in India is huge and is constantly growing at a rate of 12-15 per cent per annum.
It is classified under two sector
1. Organised, 70% market share
2. Unorganised, 30% market share
About 90% of Indians buy and eat biscuits. The rural sector consumes around 50-65 percent of the biscuits while urban sector consumes around 75-85 percent of the biscuit in India.
Biscuit can he broadly categorized into the following segments (Based on productions) * Glucose (44%),
* Marie (13%)
* Cream (10%)
* Crackers (13%)
* Milk (12%)
* Others (8%).
Biscuits contain high nutritive value and are manufactured from wheat-flour, sugar, baking powder, condensed milk, ghee (fat), salt, jelly, dry fruits, various essences and flavouring etc. Different type biscuits can be classified.
* Glucose Biscuits
Glucose Biscuits are made with pure wheat, sugar, salt and other ingredients. Glucose biscuits are the main stay of Indian biscuit industry. Glucose market share was growing at a very low rate but suddenly for the last three years there has been drop in glucose biscuit sale. All three major biscuit manufacturers (ITC, Parle, Britannia) has started re jigging their product mix (SKU‘s) in flavour of premium biscuits against glucose biscuit. The Glucose share is almost 50% of the total biscuit market share.
* Cream biscuits
Basic Characteristics of this product are,
* Crisp or crunchy texture
* Distinctive flavours (orange, butterscotch, and mango etc.) * Flavours that may change (loss of initial flavour)
* Marie Biscuits
These products are fragile and characterized by a low moisture content (<6%) low water activity and are highly hygroscopic. It is viewed as a luxury...