Chloroplasts

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Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts are food producers of the cell and they make the plant green. They are organelles found in plant cells and animal cells do not have chloroplasts. Also, they have a eukaryotic alga that conducts photosynthesis. In a plant cell there can be anywhere from 10 to 100 chloroplasts in one cell. They are approximately 4 to 6 cm in diameter and shaped like a satellite dish with the concave face forward toward the light. Also, they are similar to mitochondria but mitochondria works in the opposite direction and break down the sugars and nutrients that the cell receives.

Inside chloroplasts there are three types of membranes. The first membrane is the outer membrane. This membrane is smooth, and freely permeable to molecules. The second membrane is the inner membrane. This membrane contains many transporters that regulate the passage in and out of the chloroplasts of small molecules like sugars and proteins, proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm cell but used within the chloroplast. The third membrane is a system of thylakoid membranes. The thylakoid membrane forms a network of flattened like discs called thylakoids which frequently arrange in stacks called grana. One stack of thylakoids are called granum. Thylakoids have chlorophyll molecules on their surface, which uses sunlight to create sugars. There are four types of proteins that are imbedded in the thylakoid membranes. One is photosystem I this is chlorophyll and carotenoid molecules. The second one is photosystem II, this one does that same as the first one. The third one is Cytochromes b and f. And the last one is ATP synthase. ATP synthase carries out light reactions of photosynthesis. Some more parts in this organelle are stroma, plastoglobule, ribosomes, lumen, and lamella. Stroma is an area inside the chloroplast that where reactions occur and starches or sugars are created. Plastoglobule is a conspicuous lipid- containing structure in the chloroplast stroma thought to serve...
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