Human cilia play a critical part in human processes. Human cilia are hair-like projections that extend from the surface of a cell. Cilia are capable of rhythmic motion and acts together from separate strands so that the cell is capable of movement. Flagella are a whip-like structure that is found in cells as well that allow for the movement of the cell. Human cilia are characterized as having “metachronal rhythm" and this means is a rhythm that "changes time" to produce wave. The beating movement of a single cilium is exquisitely effective. The power stroke consists of beating stiffly in one direction, while during the recovery stroke the cilium is pulled back in floppy fashion close to the cell surface, thereby offering little resistance. Once in position, it straightens out and the stiff power stroke begins again. Human cilia or flagella are found in traditionally in three locations of the human body. In men, sperm is composed of a head and a tail, a tail that functions as flagella. In women, the fallopian tubes are lined with cilia projections, which help carry eggs and what creates resistance for sperm entering the vagina for fertilization. Both men and women (and all other mammals) have cilia in two other places in their bodies. One location is somewhat familiar: cilia coat the trachea and bronchial tubes leading down into the lungs. Cilia are also present in the brain and spinal cord. Cilia line the canals and ventricles, the empty spaces in the brain. The cerebral fluid in the brain and nervous system is kept in motion by the numerous cilia projections. Human cilia is very useful for multiple processes in the body, but when cilia is damaged, certain processes will not occur and defects will arise due to the lack of processes.
Ciliary defects occur often in humans due to the defects in the cilia projections around the body. Cilia can suffer from genetic disorders, which are called ciliopathies. Ciliopathies usually involve proteins that...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document