1. Until the early 1980s, the Chinese government's stance, reflected by the name "Three Years of Natural Disasters", was that the famine was largely a result of a series of natural disasters compounded by some planning errors. Researchers outside China, however, generally agree that massive institutional and policy changes which accompanied the Great Leap Forward were the key factors in the famine. Since the 1980s there has been greater official Chinese recognition of the importance of policy mistakes in causing the disaster, claiming that the disaster was 30% due to natural causes and 70% by mismanagement. Failures in entitlement relationships, institutions, and policies would be the main cause.
2. After the Famine, I think people clear-headedly conscious that collectivism would not work anymore. Also, Chinese leaders got a clear understanding of this, too. So, I think because of the famine, it made Chinese leader change the policy and brought China to walk in a right way. Therefore, I consider that famine is attributable.
3. Anticipate the outcome of Maoist-type reforms, and the Great Leap Forward did not fail to deliver, resulting in massive famine in which millions starved. Much as Lenin did in the mid-1920s in the Soviet Union, Mao was forced to backtrack on his reforms and under the guidance of Liu Shiao-Chi and his then-deputy Deng Xiaoping, more market-oriented reforms were implemented in the countryside, and by 1963–64 the economy recovered. So, I believe that if China can be more democratic and market-oriented in political and economic regime aspect, the damage will be reduced and mitigated. However, in that period, this mechanism would not be true which because China has under the long time feudal dynasty domination.
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