Before 600 CE China changes from Warring States to an empire during the period of Qin and Han dynasty in efforts to unifying and consolidating China. There were similarities in their bureaucracy in the means of enforcing authority and have contributed in innovations on technology, but there were differences in political philosophy.
Primarily, the Chinese states emerge 2200 BCE, under the Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties, but fell into the age of warring states. Its unification had vanished and there were endless rivalries among seven competing kingdoms. Qin Shihuangdi(ruled 221-210 BCE) was one of the rulers from the various states that had successfully reunified China. He used his already developed effective bureaucracy and launched military campaigns to defeat the other warring states. He adopted a political philosophy called Legalism that had pessimistic views on human nature and subordinated the aristocrats who disliked his centralized policies, whereas the Han dynasty later had more of a Confucian Theme in their governing philosophy. He was strict and once put 460 scholars to death as a warning for those who oppose him. He led some contributions to innovation by standardizing weights, measurement and currency, equipping his armies with iron weapons and had agricultural systems that enforce growth in populations. He also recruited laborers to construct the Great Wall of China, which was designed to keep the barbarians astray. The Qin dynasty collapse by peasants uprisings who suffered under Qin harsh policies and led to the founding of the Han Dynasty.
Moreover, the Han dynasty (206BCE-220 CE) followed continued the centralized feature of moderated harshness in policies from Qin, but adopted a more mild and moralistic political philosophy. They used Confucianism which was conceived by Kong Fuzi (Confucius) in 551-479 BCE. Confucianism became the official ideology of the empire which emphasized on the importance of education and family life. The Han dynasty...
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