Paxina Bwalya Kimbinyi
TDA 2.1: Child and Young Person Development
1.1. Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include: * Physical development
* Communication and intellectual development
* Social, emotional and behavioural development
Children and young people development follows a pattern from simple to complex. For example, children learn to stand before they can walk, skip or hop. Communication also progresses from general response to a child showing pleasure by smiling or using appropriate words or gestures. As they learn to use language effectively, they have more opportunities for social interactions and learn how to control their feelings and good conduct. All children are different but the way in which they grow and develop is often similar, as a result, we can work out a pattern for development.
Birth to 6 months old
Physical Development - At birth, arms and legs are partly bent and babies hold their hands tightly closed. They later learn how to turn from their side to their back and open hands from time to time. By four months, babies can lift both their head and their chest in the prone position, supported on their forearms. Eventually they learn to lift their head and chest if lying on their stomach, supporting themselves on their arms and hands. Communication and Intellectual - Most babies will recognise their mother’s voice and will respond by crying such as when they are hungry, tired or need nappy change. Eventually they learn to respond by excited movements, coos and smile before they can laugh. Soon they understand the meaning of words such as ‘bye-bye’,’ mama’, or ‘dada’. They would turn immediately when they hear their mother’s voice and raise their arms to be picked up. Social, emotional and behavioural development – Babies enjoy feeding and cuddling, they stare carefully at adult’s face when being fed and enjoy listening to sound, music and voices. They then start showing enjoyment at caring routines such as bath times and feeding times. They start to smile at familiar people and strangers and may show distress when their mother leaves.
6 Months to 12 Months
Physical Development - At 6 months, most babies can roll over onto their stomach when lying on their back. They soon learn to sit and eventually they can turn their body to look sideways and at 11 Months, most babies start to pull themselves up to a standing position and find ways of moving e.g. holding on to furniture. Communication and Intellectual - Babies show some understanding and babble spontaneously. They will look in the correct direction for fallen toys. They enjoy communicating with sounds and understand their daily routine and will follow simple instructions such as ‘kiss teddy’ and understand and obey the command ’no’. Social, emotional and behavioural development – Babies are more aware of other people’s feelings for example, crying if a sibling cries or laughing when others do. They are likely to have fluctuating moods and often want a comfort object such as teddy or a piece of cloth. They are shy with strangers but will wave goodbye both spontaneously and on request.
1 Year to 3 Years
Physical Development – Children can walk steadily and they learn to climb onto adult chair and eventually can run safely and are very mobile. They can throw and kick a ball, push wheeled toys and walk up and down stairs. They can walk backwards and sideways and also learn to stand and walk on tiptoe as well as stand on one foot. At around 2 – 3 years, children can ride a tricycle. Communication and Intellectual – Children communicate by using gestures alongside words. They indicate desire by pointing and obey simple instructions such as ‘please bring me the book’. They enjoy listening to songs and singing. They talk to themselves and accumulate new words rapidly. They know their full names and continually ask questions beginning ‘what?’ or ‘why?’ They...
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