Personal development-age-related changes in personality and the ways that individuals react to their environment Social development-the advances people make in their ability to interact and get along with others Moral development-advances in people's contraception’s of right and wrong in prosocial behaviors entreats of honesty fairness and respect to others.
1.1Bronfenbrenners Bioecological model of development
this model is a comprehensive description of factors influencing development. Individuals are at the center of Bronfenbrenners model. Bio-in the title (bio ecological) describes genetic influences such as health and body builds. It also includes temperament, Temperament-the relatively stable inherited characteristic that influences the way we response to our social and physical environments, social and physical stimuli. Temperament influences traits, such as confidence, happiness, adventurous, and differences amongst individuals over time.
Environmental influences on development
Ecological-the component of Bronfenbrenners model that suggests a person's development is influenced by a complex system in the environment, including family, peers, social institutions such as; churches and schools, individuals,communities,and cultures. Each of these systems is nested in a larger system; each layer is viewed as having a powerful impact on individual development.
Microsystem-inner most system and the most significant to a child’s development Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory, the people and activities in a child's immediate surroundings. Family, peers neighborhood, and school. Mesosystem- – in the model is the interactions and connections between different elements of children's immediate settings. And healthy development depends on how effectively these elements work together such as parents/school Exosystem-in bioecological theory, societal influences that affect both the micro and meso system. Such as parents,jobs,school systems, and workplace conditions, like health care that influence both the microsystem and mesosystem.Example,parent's job affect the amount of time they have to spend with their children. Macro-system-Bronfenbrenners fourth level, which includes cultural influences on development.
1.2 Parents influence on development
Parents and other immediate caregivers are the most powerful influences on the child's development they continue to influence development throughout their lives. Research indicates that certain parenting styles, general patterns of interacting with, and disciplining children, promote more healthy development. Parent’s expectations, warm, and responsiveness characterize these differences. Using theses(above)factors as a framework, researches identified for parenting styles- Parenting style-general patterns of interacting with & disciplining children; Authoritative parents-(most effective style)set high expectations and are warm, responsive, firm, caring, consistent, explain reasons for rules, and frequently interact with their children. These children tend to be more mature considerate confident securer successful in school. Authoritarian parent-have high expectations but tend to be cold and unresponsive, conformity, don't explain, don't encourage, children are withdrawn, and defiant; they tend to also lack social skills. Permissive parents-warm, holds few expectations for their children who tend to be immature, compulsive, and unmotivated, they are used to getting their own way and have trouble sometimes relating to their peers. Uninvolved parents-few expectations, cold and unresponsive, little interest in their children who tend to lack self-control and long-term goals, disobedient and easily frustrated. Attachment-the strong emotional bond that forms between children and caregivers. School connectedness-the belief by students that adults and peers in the school care about their...
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