Childhood Obesity and Technology

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Literature Review

My Chosen Topic: Technology and How its Affects Obesity in Young People

What Is Technology?

Technology is the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. Technology is a broad term that refers both to artefacts created by humans, such as machines, and the methods used to create those artefacts. More broadly, technology can be used to refer to a way of doing something or a means of organization. Technology comes from the Greek technologia, which is a combination of “techne”, meaning “craft”, and logia, and meaning “saying. When the word “technology” is used today, it is most often used to refer to high technology (computers, cell phones, rockets and TV’s) rather than technology in general (The invention of fire and the invention of the wheel). The first technological tools were simple hand-axes made by our ancestors millions of years ago. The earliest technological divisions are from mankind’s early history, divided into the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age depending on the primary tool and weapon-making material at the time. Each building material is superior to the one before it. Since the formulation of the scientific method, technological progress has apparently been accelerating. Some technologies developed since then include the telescope, the microscope, the clock, the engine, the electric generator and electric motor, radio, nuclear power and weapons, television, computer, and many others. Technological development continues strongly today, fuelled by the multibillion-dollar economies of the world’s most prosperous nations. The hottest developments in technology today are happening in computers, nanotechnology, materials science, renewable energy, entertainment, space travel, and medicine.

What Is Obesity?

Obesity and overweight have in the last decade become a global problem - according to the World Health Organization (WHO) back in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults over the of age 15+ were overweight, at least 400 million adults were obese and at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight. Obesity is a concern because of its implications for the health of an individual as it increases the risk of many diseases and health conditions including: - •Cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)

Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Dyslipidemia (for example, high total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides) •Liver and Gallbladder disease
Sleep apnoea and respiratory problems
Osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint) and Gynaecological problems (abnormal menses, infertility). •Cardiovascular disease - mainly heart disease and stroke - is already the world's number one cause of death, killing 17 million people each year and diabetes has rapidly become a global epidemic - according to WHO projections diabetes deaths will increase by more than 50% worldwide in the next 10 years. Less common health conditions associated with increased weight include asthma, hepatic steatosis and sleep apnoea.

Overweight and obesity are defined by the WHO as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to an individual’s health. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer and while it was once an issue only in high income countries, overweight and obesity has now dramatically risen in low and middle income countries.

The basic cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. Whether you want to lose weight or maintain a healthy weight, the connection between the energy the body takes in, through the food and drink consumed and the energy the body uses through the activities, must be taken into consideration. Overweight and obesity are the result of an energy imbalance where too many calories are eaten and not enough...
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