Child and Young Person Development
The main stages of child and young person development
From birth through to adulthood children continually grow, develop, and learn.
A child’s development can be measured through social, emotional, intellectual, physical and language developmental milestones.
All children and young people follow a similar pattern of development so the order in which each child advances from one milestone to the next will be roughly the same. However, each child will develop at a different rate and their development may not progress evenly across all areas. Therefore teaching practices aimed at child development should seek to simultaneously address each one of the developmental areas.
In general, child development progresses:
• From head to toe. Beginning at the top of the body and gradually moving downwards
• From inner to outer. Firstly gaining control of muscles close to the trunk/head and then moving outwards so the large muscles in the shoulders and upper arms/thighs are first and the extremities last
• From simple to complex; children progress from simple words to complex sentences
• From general to specific; emotional responses involve the whole body in young babies but may involve only the face in an older child
Areas of development
It is important to understand how children develop physically, socially, emotionally and intellectually to know that all areas of development are equally as important as each other, and that all impact on one another.
Physical development includes movement skills, gross motor skills, fine motor skills and eye hand co-ordination.
Gross motor skills determine the ability to control the large muscles of the body, including those in the arms, legs, feet and torso. Large muscles are used in movements such as crawling, walking, skipping, running, hopping and clapping.Children are active and often on-the-go. It is important that they can control their bodies to avoid frequently bumping into people or things, falling when on their feet or sitting in a chair, or dropping large items. Comfort with gross motor skills means that a child is aware of his personal space. By controlling his body, he can respect other people's personal spaces, as well. Also, when a child can control his body movements, he will feel more confident when interacting with peers.
Fine motor skills involve the small muscles of the body that enable such functions as writing, grasping small objects, and fastening clothing. They involve strength and fine motor control.Develop skills by drawing with your child using markers, crayons, colored pencils, and chalk. Drawings needn't be perfect, and scribbling is just fine for developing fine motor skills.
Children’s physical development can be supported by:
• Providing space and some equipment for the development of movement skills and gross motor skills and adequate supervision
• Providing material and equipment for the improvement of fine motor skills
• Providing cooking, sewing, woodwork and other activities to enhance hand-eye coordination.
Social and emotional development includes forming relationships, learning social skills, caring for others, self reliance, making decisions, developing self confidence and dealing with emotions.
Children’s social development can be supported by:
• Giving praise for achievement
• Giving children guidance but respecting their choices
• Giving them the chance to meet and spend time with other children and adults
• Providing activities that involve sharing and taking turns
• Giving support and encouragement and the right amount of
• Providing opportunities to share in decisions
• Listening to children and taking them seriously
• Providing opportunities where children take responsibility
Emotional development can be supported:
• By being warm and affectionate towards them
• Giving them...