Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a hidden epidemic of child abuse and neglect. Approximately there are 3 million reports of CSA in the United States every year involving nearly 6 million children. CSA take place across ethnic and cultural lines, in all socioeconomic levels, all levels of education and within all religions. Numerous adverse effects correlate with CSA some examples include, anxiety, avoidance depression, low self-esteem, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and promiscuity. In the present paper, research in the role of psychological distress in women with history of CSA reviewed to gain a understanding depression , high risk sexual activity nature of the trauma , obstacles in relationships, possessing negative beliefs and attitudes towards others, psychological effects, psychopathology. The following literature review attempts to establish and support CSA association with psychological, emotional and physical behaviors in adulthood. Continuous studies of sexually abused children and treatment outcomes are essential. Keywords: Child sexual abuse, anxiety, avoidance depression, low self-esteem, post-traumatic stress disorder, promiscuity
Child Sexual Abuse
Survivors of CSA often suffer from adverse psychological distress from CSA, long after the abuse has ended. Adult survivors are at increased risk of having of having one or more long-term negative consequences (Bremner et al., 1999; Colangelo and Keefe-Cooperman, 2012; Gladstone, Parker, Wilhelm, Mitchell, & Austin, 1999; Goodyear-Brown, 2012; Rosenthal, Rasmussen Hall, Palm, Batten, & Follette, 2005; Trowell, Kolvin, Weeramanthri, Sadowski, Berelowitz, Glasser, & Leitch, 2002). A history of CSA is not uncommonly reported by survivors with depressive disorders (Gladstone et al., 1999). They seek out a mental health professional for numerous reasons. Rosenthal et al. (2005) found shame, guilt and the social stigma with CSA of such experiences; it is likely that survivors would attempt to avoid memories and feelings through various means including psychological distress, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, suicidal behavior and borderline personality disorders. Defining the Problem
Bremner et al. (1999) affirmed child sexual abuse is extremely common in today’s society; 16% of women are the victim of rape, attempted or molestation at some time before their 18th birthday. However, CSA prevalence rates varied substantially making comparisons difficult (Colangelo & Keefe-Cooperman , 2012 as cited in Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2010). In addition, the main definitional difference was whether the abuse was physical or also involved noncontact behaviors. Goodyear-Brown, 2012 (as cited in Berliner, 2011; Berliner & Elliott, 2002; Finkelhor, 1979) defined CSA as any sexual activity involving a child in whom the child is unable or unwilling to give consent. In addition, reported CSA is a problem of epidemic symmetry affecting children of all ages, socioeconomic levels and cultural backgrounds. Therefore, all states have legal procedures against child sexual abuse, literal meanings dissent from state to state, and sexual abuse is not always clearly addressed as distinct from physical abuse (Goodyear-Brown, 2012). CSA impacts all people from a wide variety of backgrounds. Researchers have documented CSA has no boundaries of race, class, culture, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. As a result it affects the whole community including, children, adolescents, and adults. While victims including offenders are without doubt, most undeviatingly impacted, households and communities in which the abuse occurred are also strongly impacted if there is no satisfactory response to the issue.
The ability to develop relationships and get along with others is essential to healthy wellbeing. Maintaining positive, reciprocal social connections includes comprehending...
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