Hypotheses: Possible explanations for phenomena, used to predict the outcome of research
Mechanistic model: Model that views development as a passive, predictable response to stimuli
Organismic model: Model that views development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages
Psychoanalytic perspective: View of development as shaped by unconscious forces
Psychosexual development: In Freudian theory, an unvarying sequence of stages of personality development during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus and then to the genitals
Psychosocial development: In Erikson's eight stage theory, the socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego, or self.
Learning perspective: View of development that holds that changes in behaviour result from experience, or adaptation to the environment
Behaviourism: Learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of environment in causing observable behaviour
Classical Conditioning: Learning based on associating a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that ordinarily does elicit the response
Operant Conditioning: Learning based on reinforcement or punishment
Reinforcement: In operant conditioning, a stimulus that encourages repetition of a desired behaviour
Punishment: In operant conditioning, a stimulus that discourages repetition of a behaviour
Social Learning Theory: Theory that behaviours are learned by observing and imitating models; also called social cognitive theory
Observational learning: Learning through watching the behaviour of others
Cognitive perspective: View that thought processes are central to development
Organization: Piaget's term for integration of knowledge into systems... [continues]
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