Jean Piaget's Background
Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. Based upon his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently. Albert Einstein called Piaget’s discovery "so simple only a genius could have thought of it." Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. What is the relationship between Piaget’s theory and the Child Development’s short coursework? Jean Piaget’s theory is being applied in child development study because his theory shows that it has stimulated much research and has found wide support among educators. He had developed a set of conservation task to be experimented on children. The goal for this conservation task is to access the quality thinking involved although the answer is right or wrong. We applied his conservation task in our short coursework and had carried out the tasks which are the conservation of liquid, conservation of number, conservation of area, conservation of length and conservation of mass. The conservation task was carried out to prove whether his theory is exactly the same with his founding. We had found out that the children respond to each of the experiment exactly the same as he stated in his theory.
THE CONCEPT OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON PIAGET
A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. In Piaget's view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas. For example, a child may have a schema about a type of animal, such as a dog. If the child's sole experience has been with small dogs, a child might believe that all dogs are small, furry, and have four legs. Suppose then that the child encounters a very large dog. The child will take in this new information, modifying the previously existing schema to include this new information.
The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schemas is known as assimilation. The process is somewhat subjective, because we tend to modify experience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs. In the example above, seeing a dog and labeling it "dog" is an example of assimilating the animal into the child's dog schema.
Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process known as accommodation. Accommodation involves altering existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process.
Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equilibration. Equilibration helps explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next PIAGET’S PRINCIPLE OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
1.THE DEVELOPMENT OF SENSORIMOTOR
2.THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE
The first step in cognitive development is the development of sensorimotor. It begins to children at an early birth until they reach the age of about age 2.During this stage, the child learns about himself and his environment through motor and reflex actions. The child is stimulated by sensation and movement. The child learns that the outside world that he is separated from outside world but he still continue to believe that the outside world continue to exist. Besides that, the preoperational stage begins about the time where the child starts to talk to about age 7. The child starts to apply his new knowledge of language by representing objects using symbols. In this stage,he is also being able to think about things and events that aren't immediately present. The...