Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years:
Infancy and Toddler (Birth to 3 Years)
(Birth - 1 year) - The development of control and mastery over one's own body in both gross and fine motor skills is the infant's primary physical task, culminating toward the end of the first year in walking. (Age 1-2 years) - The infant perfects the gross and fine motor skills that emerged during the first year by developing balance, coordination, stability, and an improved ability to manipulate objects. (Age 2-3 years) - The child develops increased strength and uses motor skills to master challenges in the environment, such as bicycles, stairs, balls, playground equipment, eating utensils, crayons, and other objects. The child is developmentally ready to master toilet training.
(Birth - 1 year) - Cognition begins with alertness, awareness, recognition, and interest in visual, auditory, and tactile (touch) stimuli. As motor development improves, the infant begins to explore and manipulate objects and develops a rudimentary understanding of their properties. Infants develop object permanence toward the end of the first year.
(Age 1-2 years) - The emergence of symbolic thought is central to cognitive development. This results in the ability to understand and produce language. (Age 2-3 years) - Perfection of language skills and the use of language to communicate with others is the principle cognitive task.
(Birth - 1 year) - The most important social task is the development of attachment to the primary caretaker, most often the child's mother. (Age 1-2 years) - The child develops affectionate and trusting relationships with other family members and with adults outside the family. The child can also be engaged in simple games and play. (Age 2-3 years) - The child develops rudimentary relationships with other children, which are usually characterized by "parallel play," that is play in the presence of, rather than in interaction with, other children. Children also begin to imitate social roles at this time. Toilet training represents a significant internalization of social rules and expectations. PA Child Welfare Competency-Based Training and Certification Program 911-4: Foster Parenting and Child Development Emotional Development
(Birth - 1 year) - The development of basic trust, a derivative of the positive attachment between the infant and the primary caretaker, occurs during the first year. This is a cornerstone of emotional development.
(Age 1-3 years) - The primary developmental task involves the development of autonomy, which includes mastery and control over oneself and one's environment. Children develop a rudimentary self-concept, experiencing pride and pleasure at being "good" and embarrassment, shame, and distress at being "bad."
Preschool (3-5 Years)
Most basic gross motor abilities have emerged. Existing skills are practiced and perfected, and the child develops mastery in applying motor skills to increasingly challenging and complex situations.
Language develops rapidly. Grammar and syntax are refined, and vocabulary increases geometrically. The child uses language as a communication tool. Thinking is concrete and egocentric in nature. Problem solving is illogical and magical thinking and fantasies are prevalent.
The child expands social relationships outside the family and develops interactive and cooperative play skills with peers. The child begins to understand, explore, imitate, and practice social roles. The child learns concepts of "right" and "wrong" and begins to understand the nature of rules. He experiences guilt when he has done something wrong.
The preschool child has been described as...