a problem for the modern world
by W l i m C. Kvaraceus ila
Published i 1964 by the United Nations n Educational, Scientific and Culturd Organization Place de Fontenoy, Paris-7e Printed by Imprimerie M a m e
6 Unesco 1964
Printed in Frame MC.6B/D.sS/A
Juvenile delinquency a problem for the modern worlp
This book was prepared as part of the Unesco programme of
studies on problems of social inadaptation a m o n g young people. Problems of this nature, as well as manifestations of juvenile delinquency, are a source of concern and often anxiety to parents, educators, and leaders of youth organizations. It was felt that it might be helpful to them if an attempt were m a d e to examine objectively, and to explain as clearly as possible, the unusual and aggressive behaviour displayed b y some of today’s youth. T i task was entrusted to Dr. William C. Kvaraceus, w h o hs had served as a Unesco specialist on problems of social inadaptation a m o n g youth. Dr. Kvaraceus, w h o has taught at Boston University, is n o w Professor of Education and Director of Youth Studies at the Lincoln Filene Center for Citizenship and Public Affairs of Tufts University i the United States. His published n works include Juvenile Delinquency and the School and The Community and the Delinquent. T h e views put forward in the present book, the result of m a n y years of wide experience, are the author’s OWn.
Unesco takes pleasure i acknowledging the co-operation n extended by the Section of Social Defence of the United Nations in the preparation of this volume.
Table of contents
Foreword Chapter one. What is a juvenile delinquent? Variations on a theme A taste for violence The hidden delinquent The so-called‘causes’ Each one is different Chapter two.
13 15 18 20 24 28 32 36 39 43 45
Why delinquency exists
M a n y theories The need for love A search for identity The outside world Anxieties of adolescence
50 Chapter three. W%at a community can do 51 Prevention and treatment 54 The role of the schools 56 A wider range of learning 62 Help for the family 66 Asking why i happened t 68 Punishment or probation 71 The police 75 The real world of work Individual treatment for the 76 troubled Chapter four. New outlooks Involvingthe delinquent The need for research W h e n children are i danger n
80 83 84
n Despite vast technological advances visible i all countries today, the processes for helping children and youth to mature aduìthood still challenge the ingenuity of parents and youth workers. As one observes the painstaking efforts of the professionalsteachers, social workers, judges, psychologists, sociologists, psychiatrists-who seek to find ways and means to prevent and control the wayward behaviour of youth, i becomes apparent t that the professionals cannot solve or even control the delinquency problem b y themselves. Every citizen and every parent must share the task. And, w e must involve youth itself i the n solution to what is basically a youth problem. This book has been prepared for parents, interested citizens, and older youths w h o want to understand and help those youngsters whose behaviour has brought them to the attention of o5cial authority. It does not list any recipes for the prevention or re-education of the delinquent; but it does point to the need to define and differentiate the delinquent and it reviews a variety of approaches that m a y be taken i helping M e r e n t types of n youthful offenders. These approaches generally reflect a causative, diagnostic, and rehabilitative orientation. T w o major problems were faced in the preparation of this publication: first, the range in educational and child-welfare resources and programmes existing between the developed and developing countries each with its unique cultural traditions presented differing stages of readiness; second, the paucity of