Child and Young Person Development

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CYP Core 3.1 Understand child and young person development

Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth to 19 years It is important to remember that development is holistic, and each child is unique and will develop in their own way. Many skills and areas of development overlap with one another. A child does not learn the skills needed to play football, for example, which may be considered as a physical skill, without having social, communication and cognitive skills as well. Aspects of development include physical, communication and language, intellectual/cognitive, social, emotional and behavioural and moral. Physical development This is an important area of children`s development and one often assumed will take place automatically as they grow and mature. Although children will develop many skills naturally as they get older. * 0-3 years. This is a period of fast physical development. When they are first born, babies have little control over their bodies. There movement are dependent on series of reflexes (for example, sucking and grasping) which they need to survive. In their first year they gradually learn to control over their bodies so that by 12 months, most babies will have a degree of mobility such as crawling or rolling. In the second year babies will continue to develop quickly and it is at this stage most children will start to walk. Their ability to control their movements will mean they will start to use their hands for pointing, holding small objects and will start to dress and feed themselves. They will be able to play with a ball and will enjoy climbing. In their third year, children will start to have more control over pencils and crayons and will enjoy turning pages in books. They should be able to use cups and feed themselves. They will start to walk and run with more confidence, and will be exploring toys such as tricycles. * 3-7 years. At this stage children will be able to carry out more co-ordinated movements and will be growing in confidence as a result. They will be refining the skills developed so far and will he more control over fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They will be become more confident in running, hopping, kicking a ball and using larger equipment. * 7-12 years. Children will continue to grow and develop many of their skills. They may start to have hobbies and interests which mean that they are more practised in some areas, for example, sport or dance. Girls in particular will start to show some of the early signs of puberty from the age 10 or 11. In boys, puberty usually starts later, when there will be another period of rapid physical growth. * 12-16 years. At this stage of development, young people will be growing stronger. Boys will be starting to go through puberty and many girls have completed this process and have regular periods. Girls will experience breast enlargement and increase fat layers. Boys will experience enlargement of their testes and penis and muscle strength. Their voice will become deeper. Boys and girls may experience a growth spurt at this time also. * 16-19 years. This is the stage which young people become adults and often at their peak of their physical performance. Although many girls may have reached physical maturity, boys will continue to grow and change until their mid-20s. Communication and language development * 0-3 years. From the earliest stages adults will usually try to communicate with babies even though they are not yet able to understand what is being said. This is because it is important for babies to be stimulated and have an interest shown in them. Babies will be listening to language from those around them and will enjoy songs and games. Most will try to speak around 12 months although pronunciation will not be clear and words will usually be used in isolation. Between 1 and 2 years they will start to put words together and their vocabulary will start...
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