Child and Adolescent Development
A child has many milestones to reach through adolescence. The success of these milestones depends on normal development. Milestones can be challenging regardless of age and size. However, some children experience abnormal development and also delays. Detecting signs of abnormal development in certain age groups requires an understanding of development milestones. Children ages two through five and subsequently fifteen through eighteen years old experience many different growth patterns. The analysis of these groups focuses on the biological, cognitive, and psychosocial changes is beneficial when seeking to understand the progressive challenges of transition from childhood to adolescence.
Most parents follow a routine scheduled check-up with a pediatrician to chart the details of a child’s growth and development. A child’s growth refers to the age, size, and weight. Child development is the ability of a child to be able to do more complex things as growth progresses (WebMD, 2011). The development stages encompass gross and fine motor skills, language, cognitive, social, and emotional abilities. A child’s overall developments in these areas are always being observed and examined from pre-school until college. The milestones these children need to meet for each age group in addition to awareness of any delay or abnormality will be discussed below. When an infant develops and grows to the toddler age of two, you hear of the term terrible two’s. A parent may have observed this stage way before the child’s second birthday. Personal experience has placed the six months to one-year-old in this cliché because of the abilities to crawl and walk sometimes before a toddler’s mind can comprehend. For example, my daughter was able to walk at nine months old. Making sure her surroundings were safe was essential so she did not accidentally pull things down or touch something that could hurt her. My youngest daughter had the ability to climb out of her crib at seven months old and crawl out of her room. Purchasing a door handle cover and a room monitor was a necessity for her safety. The biological milestones of the two-year-old are substantial. In the past 24 months, normal development of the toddler included rapid height and weight gain, reaching and grasping for objects occurs, sitting, crawling, standing, and walking takes place. Walking up steps, scribbling, and playing creatively with objects are a few of these milestones. All of the senses are there, vision is gradually reaching 20-20, and some primary teeth have broken through the gums. Cognitively, the toddler coordinates sensory information, learns behavior, the semantic episodic memories have emerged, and the pre-operational has begun. From infancy to 24 months, the pediatrician and parent observe these milestones (Papalia, 2008). If the toddler does not reached these milestones, additional testing and observation will be recommended by a pediatrician. The psychosocial development of a toddler is also changing from the infancy stage. Emotionally, the toddler has developed self-conscious emotions of embarrassment and sympathy as well as self-evaluative emotions. The toddler is less egocentric and more appropriate with empathic responses. Negativism has begun as well as the beginnings of temper-tantrums. Socially, the toddler has formed attachments. Separation anxiety and fear of strangers may be occurring and attachment relationships may affect the quality of other relationships. Conflicts with older siblings are imminent; however, play with others is equal. Parents have most likely started creating a foundation of moral development (Papalia, 2008). A normal two year old will developed all of these milestones, along with neurological, language, self, and gender identities. If any abnormalities in the biological, cognitive, and psychosocial development most likely would have been observed and diagnosed by the age of two. Observation of...
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