Child Abuse and Coping Strategies

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CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature and Related Studies

Child abuse in children has been suggested to not only impair the normal development of the brain but also to have lasting effects in cognition, behavior, affect and social interaction (Perry et al., 1996). According to (Brand et al., 2008) child abuse is any action or lack of action that in any way may endanger or impair a child's emotional, physical or psychological health and development.

Types of abuse
Child abuse includes any type of maltreatment or harm inflicted upon children and young people in interactions between adults (Lazenbatt, 2010). (English, 1998) enumerate and define the types of child abuse which are physical, emotional, neglect, and sexual abuse. Physical abuse is an act of commission by a caregiver that results or is likely to result in physical harm, including death of a child. Examples of physical abuse acts include kicking, biting, shaking, stabbing, or punching of a child. Spanking a child is usually considered a disciplinary action; although it can be classified as abusive if the child is bruised or injured. Emotional abuse is the act of commission or omission that includes rejecting, isolating, terrorizing, ignoring or corrupting a child. Examples of emotional abuse are confinement; verbal abuse; withholding sleep, food, or shelter; exposing a child to domestic violence; allowing a child to engage in substance abuse or criminal activity; refusing to provide psychological care; and other inattention that results in harm or potential harm to a child. An important component of emotional or psychological abuse is that it must be sustained and repetitive. Sexual abuse is an act of commission, including intrusion or penetration, molestation with genital contact, or other forms of sexual acts in which children are used to provide sexual gratification for the perpetrator. This type of abuse also includes acts such as sexual exploitation and child pornography. Last is neglect. It is an act of omission by a parent or caregiver that involves refusal or delay in providing health care; failure to provide basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, affection, and attention; inadequate supervision; or abandonment. This failure acts to hold true for both physical and emotional neglect. On the other hand (Brand, 2008) list the types of child abuse and define it.

Physical abuse is any physical injury to a child which is not accidental. It may be biting, pinching, hitting, kicking, pushing, twisting arms, choking, grabbing hair, or punishment to dominate or control.

Emotional and Psychological abuse is the omission of or acts that cause or could cause serious conduct, cognitive, affective or other mental disorders as a result of parent or caretaker behavior and are almost always present when other forms of abuse are identified.

Emotional abuse involves severe rejection, intimidation, humiliation, severe criticism, constant use of verbally abusive language; denigration; name calling; constant shaming; incessant teasing; terrorizing; threats of punishment; torture or abandonment to cause fear; confinement, and failure to express any affection. This generally occurs as a result of the child's inability to meet unrealistic demands made by parents.

Psychological abuse occurs when children are not provided with the necessary environment to develop mentally. It might be controlling access to alcohol, activities, peers, family, and others.
Sexual abuse is any sexual activity in which a child is allowed, encouraged, or forced to participate. This can include sexual touching and fondling, exhibitionism, sexual intercourse, incest, and pornography.

Effects of Physical Abuse
Infants and young children are particularly vulnerable to the physical effects of maltreatment. Physical abuse is associated with various types of injuries, particularly when exposure to such abuse occurs in the first three years of life...
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