Chicago Science Fair Final Draft

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Herbal VS Chemical Ingredients in Toothpaste
Microbiology
Experimental Investigation

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Signature of Sponsoring Teacher
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Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator
Wentao Hao
2501 W. Addison
Lane Technical College Prep
Chicago, IL 60618
Grade 10
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………….3 Purpose…………………………………………………………………………4 Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………...4 Review of Literature……………………………………………………………5 Procedure and Materials…………………………….……………………….….10 Data……………………………………………………………………………..12 Results…………………………………………………………………………..23

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………....24
Reference List…………………………………………………………………...25

Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Doctor Wu for letting me use her lab in order to conduct this experiment, and to help me with my paper. She spent her vacation time during the summer to I would also like to thank my dad, Jianjun Hao, for helping me with my Review of Literature. My appreciations also go out to Mark White, as he helped me throughout the actual experimentation in the lab. Another person I would like to thank is my mom, Lihong Lin, who helped me by getting materials to make the board and the presentation.

Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effect of different toothpastes containing different ingredients on growth of the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans. This is important as Streptococcus mutans is what causes the common carries infection, or a cavity. Hypothesis

If the ring of inhibition is greatest with the Aloe vera, then the plant A. vera is the best, as a smaller zone of inhibition means that there will be a lesser growth of bacteria when that herb is used in the actual experimentation. This comes from a previous study by Julia F. Morton (1961), which says that ‘In South Africa natives split the leaves of the Aloe saponaria Haw. and lay the fleshy surface on wounds’. This means that the natives believed that the leaves of the A. vera and it’s variants have anti-bacterial effects. This leads to the conclusion that A. vera must have antibacterial effects, as many of the herbal remedies used by ancient people often have antibacterial and medicinal effects. Therefore, it can be reasonable to assume that the Aloe family has some form of antibacterial effect.

Review of Literature
Billions of people brush their teeth every day, but amidst a sea of different toothpastes, has anyone ever wondered which one was more effective? The amount of toothpastes on the market is staggering, and many of them claim many different things. Most have several categories, such as anti-bacterial, or anti-bad breath. The general thing that varies in toothpastes is the active ingredient. The active ingredients vary significantly, and the toothpaste can include many other ingredients, but the active ingredients are what matter. This experiment is about the comparison of chemical and herbal toothpastes. When people look at the back of the toothpaste, and find the active ingredients list, what is often found sodium fluoride. This is one of the ingredients that can find on the label for chemical toothpaste. When all of these many ingredients that are used in toothpastes are taken into consideration, it can completely change the growth rate of bacteria. This experiment is trying to determine whether herbal or chemical toothpastes work better in reducing the growth of bacteria. The two active ingredients in the chemical toothpaste that is used are sodium fluoride and triclosan. Sodium Fluoride

Sodium fluoride is a combination of the elements sodium and fluoride, bonded with ionic bonds. This forms an octahedral position that forms a cubic shape. Sodium fluoride is used in many industries, but it is also used for many biological weapons such as Sarin Nerve Gas. The problem is that sodium fluoride is a byproduct of the aluminum production process, so it an easy...
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