Chemistry Study Guide (Exam 2)

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Examination #2 - Chapters 4,5, and 6 Study Guide

Chapter 4 - Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions

* Reactions Stoichiometry
* mole-mole conversions
* mass-mass conversions
* Limiting Reactants
* What is the Limiting Reagent
* How do we find the L.R.
* Solutions
* Molarity - definition and how to calculate
* Dilutions Calculations (M1V1 = M2V2, careful with M2) * Solution Stoichiometry
* volume-volume conversions
* volume-mass conversions
* Molecular interpretation of solubility
* solubility rules
* Precipitation Reactions
* Determining reaction products
* Following Solubility rules
* Molecular Formula, Total ionic formula, net ionic formula * Acid-Base Reactions
* Oxidation-Reduction reactions
* Identify odixation states
* Identify which species was oxidized and reduced

Chapter 5 – Gases

* Pressure - definition
* Simple Gas Laws
* Boyle's Law - pV
* Charles's Law - P/T
* Avogadro's Law - nT
* Ideal Gas Laws
* pV=nRT
* Density calculations
* Molar Mass calculations
* Molar Volume
* Partial Pressures
* Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
* Eudometer calculations
* Gas Reaction Stoichiometry
* Volume - moles conversions
* Kinetic Molecular Theory
* 4 components of the theory
* You DO NOT need to know the derivation of I.G.L.
* Effusion of Gases
* Real Gases
* van der Waals equation
* Your extra credit question will have to do with this topic! * Atmospheric Chemistry
* 3 types of pollution-very, very basic question

Chapter 6 – Thermochemistry

* Nature of Energy
* System versus Surroundings
* Definition of Energy, internal energy, law of conservation of energy

* 1st Law of Thermodynamics
* ΔE = q + w
* Sign convention, (is it positive or negative)
* Heat and work
* pV work
* m Cs ΔT heat transfer
* conservation of thermal energy
* Calorimetry
* Constant volume calorimetry
* only heat contributes to ΔE
* Enthalpy
* Definition, equation
* Calculation using constant pressure calorimetry
* Exothermic versus Endothermic reactions (sign of ΔH) * Hess's Law
* Enthalpy of reactions manipulations
* This is a hard topic, please, please, please review this after Wednesday!

Examination #2 - Chapters 4, 5, and 6 Study Guide

Chapter 4 - Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Reactions

* Reactions Stoichiometry
* mole-mole conversions
* Needs a balanced chemical equation
* **Again no clear examples. Let me know if you can find any** * mass-mass conversions
* **No clear examples. Let me know if you can find any** * Limiting Reactants
* What is the Limiting Reagent
* The limiting reagent is also known as the limiting reactant. It is the reactant that limits the amount of product in a chemical reaction. Notice that the limiting reactant is the reactant that makes the least amount of product. * How do we find the L.R.

* Example:
* How many grams of N2 (g) can be produced from 9.05 g of NH3 (g) reacting with 45.2 g of CuO (s)? Create and Balance a Chemical Equation:
2NH3 (g) + 3CuO (g) N2 (g) + 3Cu (S) + 3H2O (l)

9.05 g NH3 x 1 mol NH3 x 1 mol N2 x 28.02 N2 = (7.44 g N2)
17.04 g NH3 2 mol NH3 1 mol N2
45.2 g CuO x 1 mol CuO x 1 mol N2 x 28.02 N2 = (5.31 g N2 Less = LR

Cuo is the Limiting Reactant!

* Solutions
* Morality - definition and how to calculate
* Definition:
* Amount of solute (in moles) per amount of solution (in Liters) * Molarity (M) = Amount of Solute (in moles)
Amount of Solution (in L)
* **Side Note**
*...
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