Chemistry Study Guide

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Honors Chemistry Study Guide/Book

Table of Contents (Sorry about the length of this thing. It’s more of a compilation of notes than anything else—much like a referencing tool.)

Chapter 1 –
Scientific Method (2)
Chapter 2 –
Uncertainty in Measurement (2)
SigDigs/Figs (2)
Rounding (2)
Scientific Notation (2)
Unit Conversions (2-3)
Percent (3)
Chapter 3 –
Formulas (3)
Metric Conversions (3)
Freezing and Boiling Points (3)
Temperature, Heat, and Specific Heat (3-4)
Heat and Phase Changes (4)
Chapter 4 –
Physical States of Matter (4-5)
Elements, Compounds, Mixtures (5)
Chemical Formulas (5)
Physical and Chemical Changes (5)
Potential and Kinetic Energy (5)
Conservation of Mass and Energy (5)
Chapter 5 –
Atomic Notation (6)
Atomic Mass (6)
Quantum Mechanics (6)
Energy Levels and Sublevels and Configurations (6)
Chapter 6 –
Groups and Periods of Elements (6-7)
Periodic Trends (7)
Properties of Elements (7-8)
Valence Electrons (8)
Ionization Energy (8)
Ionic Charges (8)
Chapter 7 –
Writing Chemical Formulas (8)
Binary Ionic, Ternary Ionic, and Binary Molecular Compounds (8) Chapter 8 –
Balancing Equations (9)
Combination Reactions (9)
Decomposition Reactions (9)
Combustion Reactions (9)
Single Replacement Reactions (9)
Double Replacement Reactions (9)
Chapter 9 –
The Mole (9)
The Mole’s Heart (10)
Percent Composition (10)
Empirical Formula (10)
Molecular Formula (10)

Chapter 1:
Scientific Method
I. Observation – senses for info
II. Question
III. Collect Data
IV. Hypothesis – can be tested
V. Experiment – control group & experimental (w/ independent and dependent variable) group
a. Independent variable – what scientist changes
b. Dependent variable – result of independent variable
VI. Conclusion – is the hypothesis correct?
VII. Implement – (probably an unnecessary step, dunno why the hell it’s here) do stuff with your results

Chapter 2:
Uncertainty in Measurement
Each measurement has a degree of uncertainty, obviously. I guess you can estimate the degree of it, somehow… The book never says how… but just do it, and that degree will be written as a plus-minus statement. The smaller the degree of uncertainty, the more precise the measurement. SigDigs/Figs

I. If x > 1:
a. W/ decimal point – count all the digits (1.09834 has 6 sigdigs)
b. W/o decimal point – count all the digits from the left except trailing zeros (1200 has 2 sigdigs) II. If x < 1:
a. Count the first non-zero digit and on (0.0012043 has 5 sigdigs) III. Adding/subtracting:
a. The number with the least sigdigs past the decimal limits the answer IV. Multiplying/dividing:
a. The least total number of sigdigs limits the answer
Rounding
…You’ve got to be joking.
Scientific Notation
I. Based on powers of 10
II. 1 < x < 10
III. Count the number of places you move the decimal, and attach an exponent to the “x10” portion of the notation
a. Going right – negative exponent
b. Going left – positive exponent
IV. Round to the tenths place (normally)
V. Examples
a. 921349 – 9.2 x 10^5
b. 0.02589 – 2.6 x 10^-2
Unit Conversions
I. Set up an equation of fractions you will multiply; the diagonal units will be the same II. The second ratio in the proportion is the conversion factor III. Example
a. Convert 200 cm to meters.
(200 cm/1) x (1m/100cm) = 2 m
Percent
Shouldn’t be a problem.

Chapter 3:
Formulas
I. Density = Mass / Volume
II. Celsius = (Fahrenheit – 32)(5/9)
III. Fahrenheit = [Celsius x (9/5)] + 32
IV. Kelvin = Celsius + 273
V. q = mc T
a. q – joules, calories
b. m – mass
c. T – change in temperature
Metric Conversions
I. Based on powers of 10
II. SI (International System of Units)
a. mass – kilogram
b. length – meter
c. time – seconds
d. temperature – Celsius
e. volume – liters
f. kilo = 1000
g. centi = .01 or 1/100
h. milli = .001 or 1/1000
Freezing and Boiling Points
I....
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