Chemistry Project

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  • Topic: Fermentation, Yeast, Bread
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CHEMISTRY
PROJECT
:AIM:
TO COMPARE RATE OF FERMENTATION OF
GIVEN SAMPLE OF
WHEAT FLOUR,GRAM FLOUR,RICE FLOUR
AND POTATO.
SUBMITTED BY :-
NAME: Shreyas kelkar
CLASS:XII A
ROLL NO: 26
INDEX
# AIM
# CERTIFICATE
# ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
# DECLARATION
# OBJECTIVE
# INTRODUCTION
# MATERIALS REQUIRED
# PROCEDURE
# OBSERVATIONS
# BIBLIOGRAPHY

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this project is submitted by SHREYAS KELKAR to the chemistry department, KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO. 1, INDORE was carried out by him under the guidance and supervision of MRS. SANGITA SHELKE during academic session 2012-2013. Date:

MRS. SANGITA SHELKE
(Chemistry teacher)
External Examiner:-
Internal Examiner:-

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to MRS. SANGITA SHELKE, KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO. 1 for her encouragement and for all the facilities that she provided for this project work. With her help I’m able to carry on this project for which I shall remain indebted to her. I extend my hearty thanks to MRS. SANGITA SHELKE, Chemistry Teacher who guided me to do this project successful completion of this project. I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude for her invaluable guidance, constant encouragement, constructive comments, sympathetic attitude and immense motivation which has sustained my effort at all stages of this project work.

SHREYAS KELKAR

DECLARATION
I do hereby declare that this project work has been
originally carried under the guidance and supervision of
MRS. SANGITA SHELKE, KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO.1, INDORE
SHREYAS KELKAR

OBJECTIVE
To compare the rate of fermentation of the given samples of wheat flour, gram flour, rice flour and potatoes. I became interested in this idea when I saw some experiments on fermentation and wanted to find out some scientific facts about fermentation. The primary benefit of

fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates, e.g., converting juice into wine, grains into beer, carbohydrates into carbon dioxide to leaven bread,
and sugars in vegetables into preservative organic acids.

INTRODUCTION
Fermentation typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. A more restricted definition of fermentation is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation usually implies that the action of micro-organisms is desirable, and the process is used to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and cider.

Fermentation is also employed in preservation techniques to create lactic acid in sour foods such as sauerkraut, dry sausages, kimchi and yoghurt, or vinegar for use in pickling foods.
History
Since fruits ferment naturally, fermentation precedes human history. Since ancient times, however, humans have been controlling the fermentation process. The earliest evidence of wine making dates from eight thousand years ago in Georgia, in the Caucasus area. Seven thousand years ago jars containing the remains of wine have been excavated in the Zagros Mountains in Iran, which are now on display at the University of Pennsylvania. There is strong evidence that people were fermenting beverages in Babylon circa 5000 BC, ancient Egypt circa 3150 BC, pre-Hispanic Mexico circa 2000 BC, and Sudan circa 1500 BC. There is also evidence of leavened bread in ancient Egypt circa1500 BC and of milk fermentation in Babylon circa 3000 BC. French chemist Louis Pasteur was the first known zymologist, when in 1854 he connected yeast to fermentation. Pasteur originally defined fermentation as "respiration without air". Contributions to biochemistry

When studying the fermentation of sugar to alcohol by Yeast Louis Pasteur concluded that the fermentation was catalyzed by a vital force, called...
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