* Aim of the project
This is to certify that the project entitled “Dyes” has been submitted by --------- a student of class XII-F under the Roll no.__________ for the academic session 2009-2010. He has completed the project work Chemistry Department under direct supervision of the undersigned as per the requirement for the Board Examination.
Department of Chemistry
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe want to express our sincere gratitude to our Chemistry teacher ------------- for her guidance , encouragement and kind cooperation without which my first ever chemistry project won’t have been possible. We are also grateful to Mrs. ---------------, LABORATORY ASSISTANT, CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT for her valuable help during the preparation of his project.
Dyes are colored substances which adhere to the surface of materials and are used to give color to paper, food stuffs, and various textiles such as cotton, wool etc. Chemically a dye contains.
* Some groups such as azo, anthraquinone which is responsible for the color of the dye. * Some groups such as-COOH, NHSSO3H which make the dye stick to the fabric by formation of some salt. The dye fabrics appear to be colored because a particular dye absorbs radiation of some specific wave lengths from the visible region of electromagnetic radiation that fall on its surface. The remaining radiations of light are reflected. For example. If a dye absorbs the light in the wavelength region. Corresponding to red, then it would appear green which is the complementary color or red. 1) APPARATUS
Funnel, distilled water, filter paper, mortar.
2) CHEMICALS USED
* White, sodium carbonate, lead nitrate, lead...