Chemistry of Urine Lab Report

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DEPARTMENT OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY
College of Art and Sciences
Visayas State University

Chemistry 31a
Biochemistry Laboratory

Experiment No. 09

CHEMISTRY OF URINE

Name:Artajo, Zeal Conbrio A. DVM-2 Date performed: Feb. 26, 2013 Group: 6 Date submitted: March 5, 2013

Objective:
1. Test urine for pH, specific gravity, and the presence of electrolytes and organic compounds. 2. Test urine for the presence of abnormally occurring compounds of proteins, glucose and ketone bodies.

Results & Observation:

A. Color, pH and Specific Gravity

Own Urine
A-1Color_____________________
A-2pH_____________________

What is your interpretation of the above test?

B. Urea
Own Urine
Effect on Litmus__________________

What is your interpretation of the above test?

C. Uric acid
Own Urine
Crystals__________________

What is your interpretation of the above test?

Is uric acid normally found in urine? Why?

D. Electrolytes
Indicates the presence of electrolytes as follows:
Not Present (-)Present (+)Strongly Present (++)

Own Urine
D-1Cl- __________________
D-2SO42- __________________
D-3PO43- __________________
D-4Na+ __________________
K+ __________________
D-5Ca2+ __________________

What is your interpretation of the above tests?

E. Glucose

Own Urine
Barfoed’s __________________
Estimate of mg% __________________
Estimate mg/dL __________________
Test Paper (________) __________________

What is your interpretation of the results?

When would glucose be found in a urine sample? Why?

F. Ketone Bodies
Own Urine
Color of Ring __________________
Test Paper (_________) __________________

What is your interpretation of the test of ketone bodies?

When would ketone bodies be found in a urine sample? Why?

G. Protein
Own Urine
Appearance __________________
Test Paper (_________) __________________

What is your interpretation of the protein test results?

H. Bar Graph of Electrolytes

Discussion:
Urine is a typically sterile liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination and excreted through the urethra. It is also an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with the remaining constituents, in order of decreasing concentration urea 9.3 g/L, chloride 1.87 g/L, sodium 1.17 g/L, potassium 0.750 g/L, creatinine 0.670 g/L and other dissolved ions, inorganic and organic compounds. Urine is sterile until it reaches the urethra, where epithelial cells lining the urethra are colonized by facultatively anaerobic Gram negative rods and cocci. Subsequent to elimination from the body, urine can acquire strong odors due to bacterial action and in particular the release of ammonia from the breakdown of urea. Cellular metabolism generates numerous by-products, many rich in nitrogen, that require elimination from the bloodstream. These by-products are eventually expelled from the body during urination, the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. These chemicals can be detected and analyzed by urinalysis. Certain disease conditions can result in pathogen-contaminated urine.

The pH of urine can vary between 4.6 and 8, with neutral (7) being normal. In persons with hyperuricosuria, acidic urine can contribute to the formation of stones of uric acid in...
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