CHEMISTRY OF CHILD BIRTH HORMONES INTRODUCTION Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy or gestation period with the expulsion of one or more newborn infants from a woman's uterus. The process of normal human childbirth is control by series of hormonal actions in which malfunction of any of them can result to child birth complications. (Marieb J.O, 1999) Marieb J.O (1999) explain that the three of the main hormones involved with reproduction are Oxytocin, Endorphin, and Epinephrine (Adrenaline). These hormones play a major role in regulating the process of labor and birth. In this seminar, the chemistry of this hormone will be examined with the view of looking at Mechanism of Action of these hormones. Lee H.J et al (2009) also stated that a hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. Only a little amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. In essence, it is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. All multicellular organisms produce hormones; plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Hormones in animals are often transported in the blood. Cells respond to a hormone when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. The hormone binds to the receptor protein, resulting in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism that ultimately leads to cell type-specific responses.
The process of normal human childbirth
is categorized in three
stages of labour: the shortening and dilation of the cervix, descent and birth of the infant, and birth of the placenta. In many cases, with increasing frequency, childbirth is achieved through caesarean section, the removal of the neonate through a surgical incision in the abdomen, rather than through vaginal birth. In the U.S. and Canada it represents nearly 1 in 3 (31.8%) of all childbirths.More than 22% of women undergo induction of labor and childbirth in the United States, doubling the rate in 2006 from 1990. Medical professional policy makers find that induced births and elective cesarean can be harmful to the fetus and neonate as well as harmful or without benefit to the mother, and have established strict guidelines for non-medically indicated induced births and elective cesarean before 39 weeks. There are, however a number of health conditions that may warrant inducing labor, some examples of when labour induction may be indicated include gestational or chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia, diabetes, premature rupture of membranes, severe fetal growth restriction, and post-term pregnancy. Cesarean section too may be of benefit to both the mother and baby for certain indications including maternal HIV/AIDS, Foetal abnormality, breech position, foetal distress, multiple gestations and maternal medical conditions which would be worsened by labour or vaginal birth.
CHEMISTRY OF CHILD BIRTH HORMONES Dale (2000) stated that the three of the main hormones involved with
Child Birth are Oxytocin, Endorphin, and Epinephrine (Adrenaline). These hormones are discussed as follows: 1. CHEMISTRY OF OXYTOCIN
Oxytocin is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. In women, it is released mainly after distension of the cervix and vagina during labor facilitating birth, and also after stimulation of the nipples helping breastfeeding STRUCTURE OF OXYTOCIN Mackenzie K et al (2005) explain that Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide). The sequence is cysteine - tyrosine - isoleucine glutamine - asparagine - cysteine - proline - leucine - glycine. The cysteine residues form a sulfur bridge. The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of vasopressin. Oxytocin and vasopressin were discovered, isolated and synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953, work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in...
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