Chemistry Notes

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Chemistry – Module 1 – The Chemical Earth

1. The living and nonliving components of Earth contain mixtures

• construct word and balanced equations of chemical reactions as they are encountered

General Reactions

a) Single displacement reaction: [pic]

EG: Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq) FeCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

b) Double displacement reaction: [pic]

EG: AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq)

c) Combination reaction: [pic]

EG: 2Mg(s) + 02 (g) 2Mg0(s)

d) Decomposition reaction: [pic]

• Heating

• Visible light or UV

• Electrolysis

Common Reactions

a) Metal + Acid [pic] Salt + Hydrogen gas

b) Metal + Water [pic] Metal hydroxide + water

c) Metal + Salt [pic] New Salt + Metal

d) Acid + Base [pic] Salt + Water

e) Acid + Carbonate [pic] Salt + Carbon dioxide + water

f) Salt + salt [pic] New salts

g) Metal Oxide + water [pic] Acid

h) Combustion

i. Element + Oxygen [pic] Element Oxide

ii. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen [pic] Carbon dioxide + Water

i) Heat + Carbonate [pic] Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide

• Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of the particle theory

All matter is made of continuously moving particles.

An element is a pure substance made up of only one type of atom. It cannot be broken down into smaller substances using ordinary physical and chemical means. All elements are homogeneous (means they have uniform composition throughout). Some elements include aluminium, copper, gold etc.

A compound contains two or more different elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio by mass. The compound’s properties are different from those of the elements that make it up A compound is a pure substance which can be decomposed into simpler substances, for example into elements. Compounds are homogeneous and also have definite melting and boiling points. Some common compounds include water, NaCl, sugar etc.

A mixture contains two or more types of particles in any proportion. They can be physically separated. The components of a mixture keep their own properties. A mixture contains 2 or more substances physically combined together in any given ratio.

|Mixture |Pure Substance | | | | |Can be separated into two or more pure substances by physical |Cannot be separated into two or more substances by physical or | |or mechanical means such as filtering, boiling or using a |mechanical means. | |magnet. | | | | | |May be homogenous or heterogenous |Only homogenous | | | | |Displays properties of the pure substances that make it up. |Has properties such as appearance, colour, density, m.p. and | |Different parts of a mixture may show different properties |b.p. which are constant. | | | | |Has properties that change as the ratio of substances is |Properties never change, no matter how it is prepared/ purified| |changed |...
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