Chemistry Life in Daily Life

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Assignment # 1
Chemistry

Submitted to: dr. shamshad
Submitted by: sheeraz ahmed
Rg# 10-nust-be-me-83
Date: 11/4/2011
Table of Context

* Introduction
* Daily Life Applications
* Fluorine
* Introduction
* Properties And Uses Of Fluorine
* Fluoridation Of Water
* Chlorofluorocarbons
* Chlorine
* Introduction
* Uses Of Chlorine
* Chlorine And Organic Compounds
* Bromine
* Introduction
* Halogen Lamps
* Iodine
* Introduction
* Uses And Applications
* Astatine
* Introduction
* Uses And Applications

Introduction &
daily life applications of
halogens

INTRODUCTION:
* Table salt, bleach, fluoride in toothpaste, chlorine in swimming pools—what do all of these have in common? * Add halogen lamps to the list, and the answer becomes more clear: all involve one or more of the halogens, which form Group 7 of the periodic table of elements. * Known collectively by a term derived from a Greek word meaning "salt-producing," the halogen family consists of five elements: * Fluorine

* Chlorine
* Bromine
* Iodine
* Astatine

* The first four of these are widely used, often in combination. * The last, on the other hand, is a highly radioactive and extremely rare substance. * The applications of halogens are many and varied, including some that are dangerous, controversial, and deadly.

DAILY LIFE APPLICATIONS:
FLUORINE
Introduction: Fluorine has the distinction of being the most reactive of all the elements, with the highest electronegativity value on the periodic table. Because of this, it proved extremely difficult to isolate. Davy first identified it as an element, but was poisoned while trying unsuccessfully to decompose hydrogen fluoride. Two other chemists were also later poisoned in similar attempts, and one of them died as a result. French chemist Edmond Fremy (1814-1894) very nearly succeeded in isolating fluorine, and though he failed to do so, he inspired his student Henri Moissan (1852-1907) to continue the project. One of the problems involved in isolating this highly reactive element was the fact that it tends to "attack" any container in which it is placed: most metals, for instance, will burst into flames in the presence of fluorine. Like the others before him, Moissan set about to isolate fluorine from hydrogen fluoride by means of electrolysis—the use of an electric current to cause a chemical reaction—but in doing so, he used a platinum-iridium alloy that resisted attacks by fluorine. In 1906, he received the Nobel Prize for his work, and his technique is still used today in modified form. Properties And Uses Of Fluorine:

A pale green gas of low density, fluorine can combine with all elements except some of the noble gases. Even water will burn in the presence of this highly reactive substance. Fluorine is also highly toxic, and can cause severe burns on contact, yet it also exists in harmless compounds, primarily in the mineral known as fluorspar, or calcium fluoride. The latter gives off a fluorescent light (fluorescence is the term for a type of light not accompanied by heat), and fluorine was named for the mineral that is one of its principal "hosts". Beginning in the 1600s, hydrofluoric acid was used for etching glass, and is still used for that purpose today in the manufacture of products such as light bulbs. The oil industry uses it as a catalyst—a substance that speeds along a chemical reaction—to increase the octane number in gasoline. Fluorine is also used in a polymer commonly known as Teflon, which provides a non-stick surface for frying pans and other cooking-related products. Just as chlorine saw service in World War I, fluorine was enlisted in World War II to create a weapon far more terrifying than poison gas: the atomic bomb. Scientists working on the Manhattan Project, the United States' effort to develop the bombs dropped on Japan in 1945,...
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