Chemistry Ip

Topics: Lung cancer, Passive smoking, Smoking Pages: 10 (2205 words) Published: October 8, 2011
Title: Effects of Second-Hand Smoking among Smokers versus Non-Smokers

Second-hand Smoking

Chapter I


Background of the Study

Conceptual or Theoretical Framework

Statement of the Problem

This Investigatory Report aims to know the effects of second-hand smoking to smokers and non-smokers.

Specifically aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents:

a. Age

b. Gender

c. Occupation

d. Smoker or Non-Smoker

2. Level of awareness regarding the effects of Second-hand Smoking to their Health

3. Is there a difference in the effects of second hand smoking to smokers and non-smokers?

Significance of the study

This study benefits the student of this school regarding the ill effects of second-hand smoking to their health and the complications brought to those who are already smokers. The study also have other beneficiaries including readers whether they are smokers, non-smokers, old aged, workers, pregnant, etc.

Review of Related Literature

Second-hand smoke is a toxic cocktail consisting of poisons and carcinogens. There are over 4000 chemical compounds in second-hand smoke; 200 of which are known to be poisonous, and upwards of 60 have been identified as carcinogens.

When a cigarette is smoked, about half of the smoke is inhaled / exhaled (mainstream smoke) by the smoker and the other half floats around in the air (side stream). The combination of mainstream and side stream smoke makes up environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

Also known as second-hand smoke, ETS plays a part in more health problems than you might realize. The following facts point out why it is so important to have smoking bans in place. No one should be forced to breathe in air tainted with cigarette smoke.

Second-hand Smoke and Cancer

The U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has classified second-hand smoke as a Group A carcinogen.

Cancers linked to passive smoking include:
• Lung cancer - 3000 non-smokers die every year from lung cancer caused by ETS • Nasal sinus cavity cancer
• Cervical Cancer
• Bladder cancer
Some chemical compounds found in smoke only become carcinogenic after they've come into contact with certain enzymes found in many of the tissues of the human body.

The Risks of Second-hand Smoke to a Child

• Low birth-weight for gestational age
• Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)- children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of SIDS. • The EPA estimates that passive smoking is responsible for between 150,000 and 300,000 of these infections in children under 18 months annually • Asthma - According to the EPA, between 200,000 and 1,000,000 kids with asthma have their condition worsened by second-hand smoke every year. Also, passive smoking may also be responsible for thousands of new cases of asthma every year • Chronic respiratory symptoms such as cough and wheezing may be attributed to second-hand smoke. • Children who breathe in second-hand smoke are more likely to suffer from dental cavities, eye and nose irritation, and irritability • Middle ear infections - exposure to ETS causes build-up of fluid in the middle ear, resulting in 700,000 to 1.6 million physician office visits yearly

Q: How does smoking affect a person's asthma?
A: Smoking can harm your body in many ways, but it is very harmful to the lungs. The airways in a person with asthma are very sensitive and "twitchy" and therefore can easily be squeezed down by the smooth muscle that surrounds these tubes. Many things can trigger symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, experiencing chest tightness and shortness of breath. When a person inhales tobacco smoke whether for personal smoking or passive smoke, these irritating substances can set off an asthma attack.

Q: How does smoking affect pregnancy?
A: Children born to mothers who smoke when pregnant have an increased...
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