Chemistry Form 4

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1) Sulphuric Acid----------------------------------------------------------------(1-6) a. Uses of sulphuric
b. Manufacture of sulphuric acid
c. Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution

2) Ammonia and Its Salt-----------------------------------------------------(7-10) d. Uses of ammonia
e. The properties of ammonia
f. Manufacture of ammonia
g. Preparation of ammonium fertilisers

3) Alloys------------------------------------------------------------------------(11-14) h. Arrangement of atom in metals
i. What are alloys?
j. The arrangement of atoms in alloys

4) Synthetic Polymers------------------------------------------------------(15-17) k. What are polymers?
l. Monomers in synthetic polymers
m. Should we continue using synthetic polymers?

5) Glass and Ceramic--------------------------------------------------------(18-20) n. Glass
o. Ceramics

6) Composite Materials---------------------------------------------------(21-22) p. What are composite materials?
q. Advanced materials and the future

7) Appreciating the Importance of Various Synthetic Industrial Materials------------------------------------------------------------------------(23)

Sulphuric
Acid

* Uses of sulphuric acid
* Manufacture of sulphuric acid
* Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution

Sulphuric Acid
Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 is a strong mineral acid. It is soluble in water at all concentration. Sulphuric acid has many applications, and is one of the top products of the chemical industry. Principal uses include ore processing, fertilizer manufacturing, oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis. Many proteins are made of sulphur-containing amino acids (such as cysteine and methionine) which produce sulphuric acid when metabolised by the body.

Uses of sulphuric acid
Sulphuric acid is the most important chemical in the chemical industry. It is widely used in the manufacture of a wide range of product such as fertilisers, detergents, paint and artificial fibres. The main use of sulphuric acid is in producing fertilizers, particularly ‘superphosphate’ and ammonium sulphate.

(a) Superphosphate fertiliser: It is manufactured from the reaction between sulphuric acid and calcium phosphate. 2H₂SO₄ + Ca₃(Po₄)₂ → Ca(H₂Po₄)₂ + 2CaSO₄.

(b) Ammonia sulphate fertiliser: It is manufactured by the reaction between sulphuric acid and ammonia. 2NH₃ + H2SO₄ → (NH₄)₂SO₄.

(c) Potassium sulphate: It is manufactured by the neutralization of sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide. 2KOH + H₂SO₄ → K₂SO₄ + 2H₂O.

Initially, sulphonic acid is produced by the reaction between sulphuric acid and hydrocarbon compounds. Sulphonic acid then reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium alkyl sulphonate, which is a detergent. Accumulators need an electrolyte to carry changes and to react with the positive and negative plates during the charging and discharging processes. In the accumulator, sulphuric acid act as the electrolyte.

Uses of sulphuric acid in the laboratory
1. Drying agent: Concentrated sulphuric acid is generally used to dry gas in the laboratory. However, it is not suitable to dry alkaline gases such as ammonia. 2. Oxidising agent: Concentrated sulphuric oxidizes copper to form copper(ll) sulphate. H₂SO₄ + Cu → CuSO₄ + H₂O + SO₂

However dilute sulphuric acid does not react with copper

3. Dehydrating agent: When concentrated sulphuric acid is added to sugar, a violent reaction occurs. The water content in the sugar is extracted by the acid and the sugar becomes carbon.

C₆H₁₂C₆ → 6H₂O + 6C.

3. Strong acid: It reacts with the salt of the weak acid such as sodium ethanoate to form a weak acid

2CH₃COONa + H₂SO₄ → 2CH₃COOH + Na₂SO₄.

Manufacture of sulphuric acid
Sulphuric acid, H₂SO₄ does not occur...
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