Chemistry for Human Welfare Promises and Concerns

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Chemistry Grade 11

Energy Trapped in Hydrocarbons
he whole world runs on energy—and so do you! Fossil fuels provide energy to power cars and heat buildings. Food provides energy to keep your body alive and warm. Both sources of energy come from organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, sugars, and proteins. Green plants, algae, and plankton trap the Sun’s energy through the process of photosynthesis. After these organisms die, they are broken down by natural processes. Their remains accumulate on Earth’s surface. In some areas, these remains build up in thick layers, which are eventually covered by rock and soil. Under certain conditions, over billions of years, pressure changes these layers into something new: fossil fuels. Fossil fuels (such as coal, natural gas, and petroleum) are fuels that are made from fossilized organic materials. The trapped energy from the Sun is still present in fossil fuels. To use this energy, we need to extract it. Combustion, or burning, is the most common way to extract energy from fossil fuels. In this chapter, you will explore the ways in which our society obtains energy from fossil fuels. You will get a chance to measure exactly how much energy is obtained from an organic substance by doing your own combustion reaction. As well, you will learn how dangerous incomplete combustion reactions can be.

Do Falling Birthrates Pose A Threat To Human Welfare?

Do Falling Birthrates Pose a Threat to Human Welfare?

Do Falling Birthrates Pose a Threat to Human Welfare?
When questioning whether or not we are a species in decline, one has but to look at two different numbers. One of those numbers is birthrates, or the number of live births in a given area. For this paper I will concentrate on the United States primarily to provide a more centralized view. The other number you can look at is the mortality rate, or number of deaths in that same area. From these two numbers one can glean much knowledge about the state of human...
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