* The energy of the subshell increases as follows:4s<4p<4d<4f * “4s” has the greatest probability of being close to the nucleus * Subshells are limited to # of electrons they can hold ( 2 electrons per orbital) s=21s orbital d=105d orbital
p=63p orbitals f=147f orbitals
* How many p subshells are in the 4th energy level (n=4)? 34px 4py 4pz
* What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the 4p subshell? 6 each p subshell can hold 2 electrons and therefore there are 3p orbitals with 2 electrons * What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the 4th energy 322n2=2(4)2 =2(16) =32
Creating Energy Level Diagrams
* Used to show the relative energies of electrons in various orbitals under normal conditions * Each orbital is indicated by a separate circle/square
* All orbitals of a given subshell have the same energy. Ie. The 3p orbitals in the 3p sublevels have the same energy * The spacing between successive subshells decreases as the number of subshells increases overlapping of shells having different values of n.
1. How many d orbitals exist?- 5
2. How many electrons can exist in the 3d orbitals?- 10-2 in each of the 5d orbitals 3. How many electrons can exist in the n=2 level? 8-remember 2n2=2(2)2=8 4. How many electrons can one 4f orbital hold? 14-2 in each of the 7f orbitals 5. Which has a higher energy a px, py, or pz orbital? They all have the same energy. 6. Which electron can be found furthest from the nucleus:2s or 3s? 3s electrons 7. Which electrons can be found furthest from the nucleus:2s or 2p. 2p is further. Fig.3.19
Arrow Orbital Notation
Aka Orbital Diagrams
* Use circles or squares for the orbitals and arrows for the electrons * RULES:
* The Aufbau Principal- electrons will occupy lowest available energy level * Pauli Exclusion Principal- no two electrons...
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