HIGHER SECONDARY - FIRST YEAR VOLUME - I
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© Government of Tamilnadu First Edition - 2004 Revised Edition - 2007 CHAIRPERSON & AUTHOR
Professor of Chemistry (Retd.) Presidency College, (Autonomous), Chennai - 600 005. REVIEWERS AUTHORS Dr. S.P. MEENAKSHISUNDRAM Professor of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002. Dr. R. RAMESH Senior Lecturer in Chemistry, Bharathidasan University Trichirapalli 620 024. Mrs. T. VIJAYARAGINI P.G. Teacher in Chemistry, SBOA Mat. Higher Secondary School Chennai - 600 101. Dr. S.MERLIN STEPHEN, P.G.Teacher in Chemistry CSI Bain Mat. Hr. Sec. School Kilpauk, Chennai - 600 010. Dr. K. SATHYANARAYANAN, P.G. Teacher in Chemistry, Stanes Anglo Indian Hr. Sec. School, Coimbatore - 18. Dr. M. RAJALAKSHMI P.G. Teacher in Chemistry, Chettinad Vidyashram Chennai - 600 028.
Dr. M.KRISHNAMURTHI Professor of Chemistry Presidency College (Autonomous) Chennai - 600 005. Dr. M.KANDASWAMY Professor and Head Department of Inorganic Chemistry University of Madras Chennai - 600 025. Dr. M. PALANICHAMY Professor of Chemistry Anna University Chennai - 600 025. DR. J. SANTHANALAKSHMI Professor of Physical Chemistry University of Madras Chennai - 600 025. Mr. V. JAISANKAR, Lecturer in Chemistry L.N.Government Arts College, Ponneri - 601 204.
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Where has chemistry come from ? Throughout the history of the human race, people have struggled to make sense of the world around them. Through the branch of science we call chemistry we have gained an understanding of the matter which makes up our world and of the interactions between particles on which it depends. The ancient Greek philosophers had their own ideas of the nature of matter, proposing atoms as the smallest indivisible particles. However, although these ideas seems to fit with modern models of matter, so many other Ancient Greek ideas were wrong that chemistry cannot truly be said to have started there. Alchemy was a mixture of scientific investigation and mystical quest, with strands of philosophy from Greece, China, Egypt and Arabia mixed in. The main aims of alchemy that emerged with time were the quest for the elixir of life (the drinking of which would endue the alchemist with immortality), and the search for the philosopher’s stone, which would turn base metals into gold. Improbable as these ideas might seem today, the alchemists continued their quests for around 2000 years and achieved some remarkable successes, even if the elixir of life and the philosopher’s stone never appeared. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, pioneering work by Antoine and Marie Lavoisier and by John Dalton on the chemistry of air and the atomic nature of matter paved the way for modern chemistry. During the nineteenth century chemists worked steadily towards an understanding of the relationships between the different chemical elements and the way they react together. A great body of work was built up from careful observation and experimentation until the relationship which we now represent as the periodic table emerged. This brought order to the chemical world, and from then on chemists have never looked back. Modern society looks to chemists to produce, amongst many things, healing drugs, pesticides and fertilisers to ensure better crops and chemicals for the many synthetic materials produced in the twenty-first century. It also looks for an academic understanding of how matter works and...