CHAPTER 9 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY
NAME: NUR INSYIRAH BTE. AB HAMED
CLASS: 4 SAINS GUNAAN (SG)
SCHOOL: SMK SERI INDAH
Content Introduction 9.1 Sulphuric acid 9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid 9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid 9.1.3 The industrial process in manufacture of sulphuric acid 9.1.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid 9.2 Ammonia and its salt 9.2.1 Properties of ammonia 9.2.2 The uses of ammonia 9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia 9.3 Alloys 9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metals 9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys 9.4 Synthetic polymers 9.4.1 The meaning and types of polymers 9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers 9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers 9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers 9.5 Glass and ceramics 9.6 Composite material Conclusion References Page 3 4 5 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 18 18 22 24 25
All the objects that exist around us are made up of chemical substances. These objects exist an element, compound or mixture. All these objects contribute benefit to humankind. As time goes on, human has done many researches to ensure all these chemical substances will be enough for the use of themselves.
Chapter 9 of Form 4 syllabus introduces the students with manufactured substances in industry. This is important for the students to appreciate the knowledge of chemistry that is still new for themselves. Personally, I think that this chapter is an interesting chapter as it revealed the way of scientist produces the material around me. It also gives me new knowledge of the uses of chemical substances that I usually found in the laboratories. I hope, by learning this chapter, I will be more interested in learning chemistry as it will help me in the future. All the equations from this chapter make me more understand of the previous chapters.
9.1 SULPHURIC ACID
9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid
1. Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid. 2. Its molecular formula is H2SO4. 3. It is soluble in water. Figure 9.1 A molecule of sulphuric acid.
4. Sulphuric acid is a non-volatile diprotic acid. 5. It is a highly corrosive, dense and oily liquid. 6. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid.
Soluble in water Non-volatile acid Diprotic acid
Properties of sulphuric acid
Viscous colourless liquid
Figure 9.2 Properties of sulphuric acid
9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid 1) To manufacture fertilizers There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid. Some of them are: a) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (superphosphate) 2 H2SO4 + Ca3(PO4) 2 → Ca(H2 PO4) 2 + 2CaSO4 sulphuric acid + tricalcium phosphate → calcium dihydrogen phosphate 4
Ammonium sulphate +2NH3 → (NH4) 2 SO4 H2SO4 sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate
Potassium sulphate +2NH3 → (NH4) 2 SO4 H2SO4 sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate
2) To manufacture detergents Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. Examples of hydrocarbon 3) To manufacture synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a synthetic fibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose. 4) To manufacture paint pigments The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate, BaSO4. The neutralization of sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate. 5) As an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators 6) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating 7) To manufacture pesticides 8) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: a. As a strong acid
b. As a drying or dehydrating agent c. As an oxidizing agent d. As a sulphonating agent e. As a catalyst
Remove metal oxides from...
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