* a science that dealing with the structure, composition and properties of items and with the transformations that they undergo * the composition and chemical properties of a substance * chemical processes and phenomena (as of an organism) Examples:
- Digestion; enzymes promoting chemical reactions that power our bodies. Lifting your arm requires your body to make and burn ATP using oxygen with carbon dioxide as one of the waste gases produced. - The internal combustion engine takes liquid gasoline, converts it to a gas, burns it takes the waste to make mechanical energy and then expels some noxious gases. The rare metals in the catalytic converter scrub out the sulfuric acid, but we still get the ingredients for smog out of them. - Cooking is the heating and combination of compounds to make something new. In some cases, like rising bread we have an actual chemical reaction where the yeast changes the food. - When concrete dries and hardens the water actually causes a chemical reaction with the cement making a binding action drying concrete isn't just losing water it is undergoing a chemical change and one that creates heat as well (an exothermic reaction). - When you write with ink on paper, the ink and paper unite in a chemical reaction so that you can't erase it. Specialized inks allow a short period where you can erase some inks, but most inks dry and can't be erased; they have bound with the paper. This includes your pen and your ink jet printer.
* Analytical chemistry is the chemistry discipline concerned with the chemical composition of materials. * Analytical chemistry also is concerned with developing the tools used to examine chemical compositions. Examples:
- The Culligan Man comes to your house and tests your water hardness.
- You have your blood sugars tested.
- You check the pH in your fish tank.
- The quantity of metal in an ore is tested to determine if it is feasable to mine. - you have 3000 grams of sulfur and burn it in an excess of air. if you end up with 4000 grams of sulfur dioxide, then what was the efficiency of the reaction?
* The chemistry of carbon compounds (other than simple salts such as carbonates, oxides, and carbides). Examples:
* photosynthesis of a plant leaf is organic chemistry.
* behavior of cancer cells is organic chemistry.
* determine the structure of this newly discovered molecule and then modify it to enhance the desired activity and specificity of action, while decreasing undesired side effects. * Glucose
* The chemistry of compounds that do not contain hydrocarbon radicals.
* Sodium Chloride (table salt)
* Carbon Tetrachloride (no C-H bond!)
* Sulfuric Acid
* Calcioum Carbonate (chalk)
* The branch of science concerned with the chemical and physicochemical processes that occur within living organisms. Examples:
* Monosaccharide-1 glucose, fructose, galactose
* Lipids- contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
* Polysaccharides-starch, glycogen, cellulose.
* Nucleic Acids- chain of nucleotides, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphate, contains hereditary info, DNA, RNA, produce protons * Peptide bonds- joining of 2 amino acids
* The branch of chemistry concerned with the application of the techniques and theories of physics to the study of chemical systems. Examples:
Macroscopic properties of substances describe how relatively large quantities of the substance behave as a group, e.g. melting points and boiling points, latent heats of fusion and vapourization, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, and many other "physical properties". * Microscopic:
Microscopic properties of substances concern details of their physical properties observable...