Chemistry

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Project
In
Chemistry

Larick E. Mahinay
III – Perseverance

Ms. Cristina C. Areglo

Table of contents

Part I
I. Introduction
II. Elements and Compounds
III. Mixtures
IV. Different Phases of Matter
V. Properties of Matter
VI. Concept of Matter

Part II
I. Periodic Table
II. Electronic Configuration
III. Development of Periodic Table
IV. Chemical Symbols

Part III
i. Chemical Equation Rules in Balancing
ii. Evidences of Chemical Reaction
iii. Chemical Reaction
iv. Changes in Matter
v. Guide Questions

Acknowledgement

I would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to the following person who help me and to the sites where I search the following topics in the completion of this Project.
To my Classmates who help me to find an answer to the guide question and to those topics I didn’t understand.
To my parents for the finance and for supporting me.
To the owner of the computer for allowing me to use her/his computer so I could accomplish this project.
To my Friends who gave some information and helping in the guide question.
To our Chemistry Teacher for teaching us how to do this project.
And to the following sites where I get the information and trivia: * www.webelements.com
* en.wikipedia.org
* chemistry.about.com
* http://answers.yahoo.com/
* Google Images

Most especially to my family and friends

And to God , who made all things possible.

I. Introduction
Matter
Matter is generally considered to be a substance (often a particle) that has rest mass and (usually) also volume. The volume is determined by the three-dimensional space it occupies, while the mass is defined by the usual ways that mass is measured. Matter is also a general term for the substance of which all observable physical objects consist. Typically, matter includes atoms and other particles that have rest mass (not all particles have rest mass). However, not all of the particles with rest mass have a classical volume, and fundamental particles such as quarks and leptons (which are sometimes equated with matter) are considered in physics to be "point particles" without any effective size or volume. This challenges the first definition above. Nevertheless, quarks and leptons together make up "ordinary matter," and their interactions contribute to the effective volume of the composite particles that make up ordinary matter. The composite particles such as atoms, atomic nuclei, and nucleons, all have both rest mass and volume. By contrast, mass less particles such as photons are not considered to be matter, and these have either rest mass or volume. Matter should not be confused with mass, as the two are not quite the same in modern physics. For example, mass is a conserved quantity which means that its value is unchanging through time, within closed systems. However, matter (unlike mass) is not conserved in such systems, although this is not obvious in ordinary conditions on Earth, where matter is approximately conserved. Still, special relativity shows that matter may disappear by conversion into energy, even from closed systems, and it can also be created from energy, within such systems. This transformation has been observed in practice. In high-energy accelerator experiments, for example, matter particles such as electrons, positrons, and even protons and neutrons can be produced from various types of non-material energy such as kinetic energy and potential energy. However, because mass (like energy) can neither be created nor destroyed, the quantity of mass and the quantity of energy remain the same during a transformation of matter (which represents a certain amount of energy) into non-material (i.e., non-matter) energy. This is also true in the reverse transformation of energy into matter. Albert Einstein showed that ultimately all matter is capable of being converted to energy, by the formula:

Where E...
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