Chemistry

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Module 4:
10.
Strong Bases: NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, Na3PO4, NaHPO4,
Strong Acids: Fe(NO3)3, HCL, HNO3, Al(NO3)3, NiCl2, H2SO4
11.
Acidic Neutral Basic
NaClKNO3NaOH
HC2H3O2Na2CO3
NaC2H3O2NaHCO3
Fe(NO3)3NaNO3Na3PO4
HClMgSO4KOH
HNO3Na2SO4NaHPO4
CuSO4NaNO2
CoCl2
Al(NO3)3
NiCl2
H2SO4
KCl
NH4Cl
12.
CuSO4
CuCO3.Cu(OH)2(s) + 2 H2SO4(aq) ----> 2 CuSO4(aq) + CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l) Na3PO4
Na3PO4 (aq) + 3H2O (l) --> H3PO4 (aq) + 3NaOH (aq)
13.
Arrhenius definition says that a base yields the hydroxide ion (OH-) in an aqueous solution. Arrhenius definition is dependent on substances in aqueous solutions. On the other hand, a Bronsted-Lowry base is one that accepts a proton (hydrgoen ion, H+; since hydrogen donates its only one electron in order to be H+ which is just a bare proton) from a proton donor which is the Bronsted-Lowry acid. Bronsted-Lowry definition goes beyond those substances in aqueous solutions. It can identify a substance whether it's an acid or a base even if this substance is not in water. 14.

In this system, an acid is defined as any chemical species (molecule or ion) that is able to lose, or "donate" a hydrogen ion (proton), and a base is a species with the ability to gain or "accept" a hydrogen ion (proton). acid salt: NaHSO4 & H2O => Na+ & H3O+ & SO4-2

basic salt: Na2CO3 & H2O => 2Na+ & (HCO3)-1 & OH-

neutral salt: NaCl & H2O => Na+ & Cl- & H2O
Module 5- Buffers
15.
An acid contributes a surplus of hydrogen ions to a solution. A base contributes a surplus of hydroxide (OH) ions to a solution. 16.
Buffer solutions are solutions that resist change in Hydronium ion and the hydroxide ion concentration (and consequently pH) upon addition of small amounts of acid or base, or upon dilution. Buffer solutions consist of a weak acid and its conjugate base (more common) or a weak base and its conjugate acid. This is an appropriate name because the solution ‘’buffs’’ solutions...
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