Chemical Bonding

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Contents Page Introduction 4 1.Description of:

● Covalent Bonding 5 ● Ionic Bonding 6 ● Dative (Co-ordinate) Covalent Bonding 7 ● Metallic Bonding 7 2.Defination of the following structures:

● Ionic Crystals 8 ● Simple Covalent Molecules 10 ●Simple Molecular Crystals 11 ● Giant Molecular Crystals 12 3.Defination of:

● Allotropy 13 ● Polar Covalent Compounds 13 4.Explanation on how the structures of the following

compounds influence their properties:
● Sodium Chloride 14 ●Iodine 15 ● Graphite 15 ● Diamond 16 Conclusion 17 Bibliography 18

Chemical bonding is the formation of chemical compounds. It is a force of attraction between combining atoms. There are a number of things which occur during chemical bonding. These are that the atoms use their outer shell to form bonds, the atoms may either lose, gain or share their valence electrons and the electronic configuration of the atoms change and new particles are formed. The main types of chemical bonds are ionic bonding, covalent bonding and metallic bonding.

Covalent Bonding
A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, and other covalent bonds. Covalent bonding consists of many kinds of interaction, including σ-bonding, π-bonding, metal to metal bonding, agostic interactions, and three-centre two-electron bonds.

Picture 01: Diagram showing covalent bonding.

Covalent bond means the atoms share the same valence. E.g. in the molecule H2, the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons through covalent bonding. The properties of the compounds that are formed in covalent bonding are that they can either be a liquid or gas at room temperature, they have both low melting and boiling temperatures and low heats of fusion and vaporisation, some are soluble in water while others are also soluble in non-polar organic solvents and they do not conduct electricity when molten. They can either be a liquid or gas at room temperature because they have small molecules and the attraction of forces between them are weak. They have low melting and boiling temperatures because of the weakness of intermolecular forces. Some dissolve in water while others dissolve in non-polar organic solvents because the non-polar molecular...
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