Chem experiments

Topics: Sodium hydroxide, Ammonia, Solubility Pages: 43 (6275 words) Published: November 25, 2013
UTAR
FHSC1134 Inorganic Chemistry
Trimester 3

Experiment 1
________________________________________________________________________ Title: Investigating the Properties of Period 3 Oxides
Aim:
To examine the oxides of Period 3 elements and describe their structure and bonding. Introduction:
Generally, there are oxides of metals and non-metals. Metals burn in oxygen to form basic oxides while non-metals form acidic oxides. Structurally, they are covalent or ionic compounds. You are to do some simple observations and tests, to find out the differences between the types of oxides provided and to account for these differences. Apparatus:

Test tubes
Measuring cylinders
Wooden splinter

Test tube rack
Thermometer
Glass rod

Materials:
Sodium peroxide
Silicon (IV) oxide
Universal indicator solution

Magnesium oxide
Phosphorus pentoxide
Litmus paper

Safety measurements:
Safety spectacle
**Warning:
Phosphorus (V) oxide is corrosive and irritates eyes, skin and lungs. Sodium peroxide is also corrosive and a powerful oxidant.
Procedure:
Part A: Appearance:
Examine your oxide samples, and in Table 1, note for the physical states at room temperature:
(a) whether it is solid, liquid or gas,
(b) its color (if any)
Part B: On mixing with water:
1. Set up 4 test tubes, side by side.
2. Into each test tube pour about 5 cm3 of distilled water.
3. In the test tube, place a thermometer.
a. Note the temperature.
b. Add half a spatula-tip of sodium peroxide and stir carefully with the glass rod. c. Note after one minute, (i) the temperature, (ii) whether the solid has dissolved and (iii) anything else you see. For example, is gas evolved at any time? If so, is the gas acidic? Can you identify it using a simple test?

Lab manual version 4.1
Foundation in Science

1

UTAR
FHSC1134 Inorganic Chemistry
Trimester 3

d. Add 2 -4 drops of universal indicator solution, compare the color with the chart provided, and note the pH indicated or use a piece of pH paper. 4. Repeat the above steps 3 (a) – (d), using, in turn, magnesium oxide, silicon (IV) oxide and phosphorus (V) oxide.

5. Measure the pH of the water in the fifth test tube by adding 2-4 drops of universal indicator solution for comparison with the above.
Results:
Table 1
Na2O2

MgO

SiO2

P4O10

Appearance
Initial temperature/ºC
Final temperature/ºC
Solubility
pH of solution

Other observation(s)

Lab manual version 4.1
Foundation in Science

2

UTAR
FHSC1134 Inorganic Chemistry
Trimester 3

Questions:
1. Use your experimental results and your test books (if necessary) to complete a larger copy of Table 2.
Table 2
Formula of oxide

Na2O2

MgO

Al2O3

SiO2

P4O10

Cl2O

Melting-point/ oC
Boiling-point/ oC
State at s.t.p.
Action of water
pH of
solution

aqueous

Acid/base nature
Conductivity
liquid
Solubility
hexane
Structure

of
in

Bonding

2. Write equations for any reactions which took place when you add the oxides to water. 3. Comment on the change in structure and bonding in the oxides of the elements in the period between sodium and chlorine.

4. How does the acid-base nature of the oxides of the elements in Period 3 change with increasing atomic number?
5. Can you relate this change in structure and bonding that take place along the period?

Lab manual version 4.1
Foundation in Science

3

UTAR
FHSC1134 Inorganic Chemistry
Trimester 3

Experiment 2
________________________________________________________________________ Title: The Solubility of Some Salts of Group II Elements
Aim:
To study the solubility of the sulphates, sulphites and hydroxides of Group II elements. Introduction:
In this experiment, you add each of the anion solutions to 1 cm3 of each cation solution provided, drop by drop, until the first sign of a precipitate appears. For each salt, the solubility is proportional to the number of drops of anion added. Apparatus:

Test tubes
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