Topics: Bacteria, Cell wall, Amino acid Pages: 5 (1041 words) Published: December 3, 2012
Microbiology: study of small living things
study of bacteria: bacteriology
study of viruses: virology
study of parasites: parasitology
study of fungi: mycology


antibiotic: used to treat bacterial infections and diseases (penicillin, mold, 1929) bioremediation: using bacteria to clean up toxins

pathogenesis: ability of an organism to be pathogenic
virulence factors: toxins, receptors, cellular composition

innate immune response v.s. adaptive immune response

MRSA: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureas (treatment is Vancomycin)

Bonding sequence: atoms → molecules → cells → tissues

Atoms: protons + neutrons +electrons
protons: found in the core, positive charge, equal to atomic number neutrons: also found in the core, neutral charge, contribute to mass of an atom electrons: found outside the core in orbitals, negative charge, equal to number of protons

ionic: donating electrons to fill a shell (stability)
covalent: sharing electrons, one pair = single bond, two pair = double bond polarity: slightly unequal sharing of electrons
hydrogen: determine and maintain structure, affected by temperature and pH, involved in proteins and DNA

solvent: liquid substance
solute: dissolving substance

dehydration synthesis: using water to build molecules
hydrolysis: using water to break down molecules

heat capacity: ability to absorb or retain heat (reactions give off heat)

pH scale: 1 (acidic) - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 (water) - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 (alkaline) human body range: 7.2-7.4

Biological molecules (organic molecules)
easily used and best source of energy
contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen
types: monosaccharide (small chain of carbons), disaccharide (two monos), polysaccharide (many monos) linked by dehydration synthesis
example: glucose
insoluble, contain more energy than carbs but harder to break down fats:
contain 3 carbon molecule glycerol + one (or more) fatty acids made by dehydration synthesis, broken down by hydrolysis
classified by how many tails are attached
monoacylgylcerols (one fatty acid tail), diacylglycerol (two), triacylglycerol (three)
- can be saturated (contains all hydrogens) or unsaturated (lost hydrogens, formed double bonds) glycolipids: lipids with carbohydrates attached
phospholipids: lipids with phosphates attached, form barriers between water inside the cell and outside the cell steroids: example cholesterol, found in cell membranes of eukaryotic cells or fungal plasma membrane

each proteins has a specific 3-D shape that is directly related to function made of amino acid building blocks (contain one carboxyl group and one amino group) also made of long sequences of linked amino acids called peptides (dipeptide = two amino, poly = many) peptide bond formed through dehydration synthesis of carboxyl and amino groups

- four levels of structure (held together by hydrogen and disulfide bonds)

- can be denatured (pH and temp break hydrogen bonds) which causes changes in shape and therefore function - two main types: structural, enzymes
structural proteins: preserve structural integrity, used for motility enzymatic proteins: metabolism, lowers activation energy of reactions, holds reactants together during reactions

- Nucleic acids
involved with cellular information and function as energy molecules two types: DNA, RNA
DNA (nucleotide): nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine) + deoxyribose sugar + a phosphate RNA: ribose sugar + uracil instead of thymine
major energy molecule in cells is ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 
Classification of Organisms: prokaryotes (no membrane-bound organelles) v.s. eukaryotes (organelles) organisms classified by genus and species name (ex: Clostridium tetani)

- are small (0.1-.000001m)
are classified by shape and multi-cell arrangements
can move from their...
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