“A distinctive cry, physical reflexes, an attractive smile, and a brain alert to both novelty
and sameness” (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 18) describes an infant. From birth to age 2,
babies grow and learn at an amazing pace. Curiosity, language development, and physical
independence are key factors from this first period. By age 2, a child has entered what is known
as early childhood. This stage, from ages 2 to 6, demonstrates a tuning of the motor and
language skills. Kids use scissors, run, and jump. They begin to use imaginations and “
become progressively more interested in others, eagerly spending time with playmates”
(McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 19).
Ages 6-10 is known as middle childhood. “Children display motivation and persistence
in mastering the customs, tools, and accumulated knowledge of their community and culture”
(McDevitt & Ormrod, 2004, p. 20). Friendships and expectations of themselves are taken more
seriously than before. Once a child enters early adolescence, from ages 10-14, more major
changes occur. Maturation of sex characteristics and an influx of hormones makes for a
somewhat awkward phase, especially since kids mature at different rates. Preteens and teens
begin to assess their place in their world and their increasing independence.
The final stage of development is late adolescence and occurs between the ages of 14-18.
Kids are faced with difficult...