(Q) Discuss the origin and growth of regional parties in India. (marks 6) (A) When Indian democracy had its first elections in 1952, there were hardly any regional parties. That trend has changed considerably today and there are 47 regional parties and over 400 smaller parties. The main reasons for the origin and growth of regional parties in India can be summed up in the following points.
In a large democracy like India, smaller parties always have a place and crucial role to play. Besides, the local aspirations of the people have often been forgotten by national parties. So, the local and regional parties have taken advantage of their grievances and bargained hard to get fair representation of local needs.
One of the other reasons for the growth of regional parties is the growing consciousness of people that single party rule, as history has shown, can be authoritarian, caring little for the regional issues. So, they think that the formation of the Third Front consisting mostly regional parties can make a difference.
(Q) Mention six fundamental duties of the Indian citizens. In which part of the Constitution and under which article have this duties been mentioned? (marks 4+1+1) (A) The Fundamental Duties of the Indian citizens are mentioned in Article 51 A of the Indian Constitution. Six among them are (i) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions (ii) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so (iii) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India (iv) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform (v) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom (vi) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
(Q) Discuss four instances of centralising tendencies in Center-State Legislative relations. (marks 6) (A) The centralizing tendencies of the Indian federation can be traced in the following provisions of the Constitution:
Article 3 of the Indian Constitution provides that the Parliament may form new states by separating or uniting the territory of the existing states. It may increase or diminish the area and alter the name and boundary of any state.
The Indian Constitution provides for a single citizenship. In India, every person is a citizen of India and they are not entitled for citizenship of any state. The Union Parliament is empowered to enact all laws related to citizenship.
In spite of not being the nominal head of the state, the Governor holds significant powers in the state-affairs. In fact, the Governor functions as the representative of the Union Government and is not responsible to any authority within the state.
The states do not have separate Constitutions. India has a single Constitution, which makes provision for both the Union and the States. The states do not have any power of amending the Constitution. It is the sole prerogative of the Union Parliament.
(Q) What are the executive powers of the Governor? Mention one special privilege of him. (marks 5+1) (A) The Constitution vests all the executive powers of the State Government in the Governor. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister and other members of the Council of Ministers and distributes portfolios to them on the advice of the Chief Minister.
The Council of Ministers remain in power during the 'pleasure' of the Governor. In real sense, it means the pleasure of the Vidhan Sabha. As long as the majority in the Vidhan Sabha supports the government, the Council of Ministers cannot be dismissed.
The Governor appoints the Advocate General and the chairman and members of the State Public Service Commission. The President consults the Governor in the appointment of judges of the High Courts. The Governor also appoints the judges of the District Courts.
Special privilege of the governor: The Governor acts as the nominal head of the state....