Chapters 4 & 5 of Thesis

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Chapter IV
Results and Discussion
Research Result
* The ultimate objective (key component) of scientific research * One of the four major sections that constitute the main body of the research * Presents all the data collected and accumulated, together with the statistical treatments and analyses without discussing the implications of the findings. * Consists of the observations and measurement recorded while conducting the process and procedures describe in the Methodology section * It must address the questions raised and the hypotheses formulated in the beginning of the research

QUALITIES of GOOD RESULT
1. CONCISE - summarized the results in a detail and comprehensive way the experimental outcomes and statistical results of the study 2. ACCURATE -Data should not be manipulated. -Researchers must be cautious and careful in presenting the gathered results 3. INCLUSIVE - Must include not only affirmative data but also the negative result, (e.g. experimental errors that may have a significant bearing in your conclusion based on the results gathered) 4. SYSTEMATIC - Data presentation must be done in a logically; in a way that it can be easily understood.

- Usage of legends explaining what are being summarized.   5. RELEVANT- Results should compliment and be related to the hypotheses and problems the research is trying to address

FORMS of RESULT PRESENTATION
* Numerical Presentation
* Graphical Presentation
* Written Text

 Two Basic ways of Organizing Results
* Presenting all the results and then the discussion
* Presenting part of the results and the related discussion thereof  
What to include in the Result Presentation?
* Result that answer the research questions
* Data that can be used to outline the important trends * Negative results
* Results that are intended to be address in the discussion section * Results of statistical analyses
Discussion
* One of the major section of a research paper
* Explaining the result to the reader is the purpose of discussion section. * Always write the discussion for the reader; the discussion is not a forum for you to impress others with your knowledge of the subject. You should be trying to convince the reader of the merits of the study results.

Things to Avoid in the Discussion
1) Over interpretation of the Results
* . Be careful that your interpretation of the results does not go beyond what is supported by the data. The data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. 2) Unwarranted Speculation
* The discussion should remain focused on your data and the patients and/or devices in your study. If you feel compelled to speculate, be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation: “We speculate that. . . ” 3) Inflating the Importance of the Findings

* After all of the hard work that goes into a study, it is easy to attribute unwarranted importance to study findings. We all want our study to make an important contribution that will be cited for generations to come. However, unwarranted inflation of the importance of the study results will disgust reviewers and readers. A measure of humility goes a long way. 4) Tangential Issues

* It is important to remain focused on the hypothesis and study results. Injecting tangential issues into the discussion section distracts and confuses the reader. Tangential issues run the risk of diluting and confounding the real message of the study. 5) The “Bully Pulpit”

* Do not use the discussion section to criticize other studies. Although you should contrast your findings to other published studies, this should be done professionally. Do not use the discussion to attack other investigators. Moreover, never preach to the reader. 6) Conclusions That Are Not Supported by the Data

* The hypothesis 3 study 3 data 3 conclusions should...
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