Chapter 8- A.P History Midterm Review

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-New France
· 1698 - exploration led by Samuel de Champlain
o Settlements by Quebec along the St. Lawrence River 
· Befriended many tribes
o Montagnais + Hurons = tribes that allied with French
· Alliances with tribes in the St. Lawrence led to battles with the Iroquois
o France played an effective role in keeping peace to ensure the security of New France 
· Jesuits- missionaries that forced Christianity down the Indian’s throats
-Development of New France
· King Louis XIV disbanded the Company of New France and ruled the colony directly
· Ruled by two royal appointees:
o A governor in charge of military and diplomatic affairs
o Intendant who oversaw colonial finances and the judicial system 
· Rumors of Canadian Winters and Indian Surprise attacks led to a low rate of population growth
-Dutch Trading
· Dutch exploration driven by profit
· 1600 - Dutch = leading economic power in Europe
· Amsterdam was a key financial capital
o Bank of Amsterdam founded in 1609
· Bulk goods shipped from the Baltic countries:
o Grain, salt, lumber, fish
· Mediterranean luxury products:
o Sugar, dyestuffs, wine
· 1602 - Dutch East India Company 
o Challenged Portuguese’s monopoly of Asian trading
· 1st success = capture of Spice Islands
· Established trading posts on the Gold Coast of West Africa + Africa’s Southern tip
o Competed with Portuguese slave trade 
· These actions solidified Dutch trading for decades
-New Netherland
· 1621- West India Company: set up by Dutch to become more involved in the New World
· Moved into the Caribbean and North America (for trading purposes)
· Claimed Connecticut, Hudson, and Delaware Valleys
o Courtesy of Henry Hudson explorations 
· Economic focus was fur trade
· 1630’s- West India Company offered large estates of land (patroonships) to wealthy Dutchmen to help supply colonial traders
· The Dutchmen would populate the land with tenant farmers
· New Netherland was known for its religious diversity
-Joint Stock Companies
· 1606- Two Companies funding the settlement of New World 
o London (or Virginia) Company – which included merchants from the city of London
o Plymouth Company - which included merchants from England’s western ports.
· James I granted the Companies two tracks of land along the mid-Atlantic Coast
-Jamestown/ House of Burgesses
· 104 men on 3 ships sailed to the mouth of the Chesapeake bay in May 1607
· marsh and swamp areas led to mosquitoes carrying malaria
· Settlers neglected to plant crops and instead searched for gold
· When no gold was found the settlers had no source of food
· John Smith was wounded and brought back to England
o During his absence the colony nearly disintegrated
· Shiploads of men would arrive only to starve and die
· 1616- Headright system was established
o 50 acres of land for every man that came to the colony
o 50 more for every person they brought with them 
· 1616 House of Burgesses was established 
o Landowners would elect members into the House
o The House would make laws for Virginia 
-Importance of Tobacco in the Chesapeake
· Began growing tobacco during search of a marketable product after 1610
· Europeans developed a taste for tobacco from Spain who brought it from the West 
-Puritans and Separatists
· Separatists were Puritans (extreme level)
· Separatists could not reform the Church of England so they became a separate religion
· Puritans goal was to “purify” the Church of England
-John Winthrop’s “A Model of Christian Charity”
· 1629- Massachusetts Bay Colony = City upon a hill
· To vote in the town you did not have to be a saint
o Becoming a saint became easier
· Bicameral system of gov’t
o Upper house = 18 members
o Lower House = Represents Towns (saints/ deputy gov)
· Town meetings were lead by local male land owners
· Idea Behind the City Upon a Hill
o Be a beacon/ model for other nearby towns
o Look up on the hill to see a perfect religious community
o (On a hill you are closer to God)
-Pequot War
· Puritans from Massachusetts Bay Colony vs....
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