Chapter 7&8 Marieb Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Chrystal Moore
Chapter 7 & 8
Chapter 7
Review Questions 1-15 pg. 246
1. B, G
2. H
3. D
4. D, F
5. E
6. C
7. A, B, D, H
8. I
1. G
2. F
3. B
4. A
5. B
6. C
7. D
8. E
1. B
2. C
3. E
4. A
5. H
6. E
7. F
4.) The cranial bones are made up of the frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, the occipital bone, sphenoid bone, and ethmoid bone. The facial bones consists of two nasal bones, two maxillae, two zygomatic bones, one mandible, two lacrimal bones, two palatine bones, two inferior nasal conchae, and the vomer bone. The functions of the cranial bones are to protect the brain, stabilize the position of the brain, blood vessels and nerves, and provide space for the muscles that move the head. The function of the facial bones are to provide framework for the face, protect and provide support for the digestive and respiratory systems, and attach muscles that are necessary in creating facial expressions. Together, the facial and cranial bones protect and support the organs necessary for the senses of vision, taste, smell, sound, and for balance. 5.) The adult skull has 8 bones in the cranium, and 14 bones in the face. The cranium at birth is huge relative to the face and the 8 bones in an adult cranium are present, but not fused together. The outline of the fetus’ face is flat. A fetus’ cranium and face features have more bones and fonatelles than that of an adult’s skull. 6.) The vertebral curvatures consist of, in order from top to bottom anatomically, the cervical curvature, the thoracic curvature, the lumbar curvature, and the sacral curvature. The cervical curvature is made up on 7 vertebrae, the thoracic has 12, the lumbar has 5, and the sacral has 5 fused vertebrae that make up the sacrum. The cervical and lumbar curvatures are concave posteriorly and the thoracic and sacral are convex posteriorly. The primary curvatures are the thoracic and sacral curvatures. The secondary curvatures are the cervical and lumbar curvatures. 7.) The cervical vertebrae are smaller than the thoracic vertebrae and has longer vertebral arches. IT has three holes for the vertebral foramen and two for the transverse foramina. The thoracic vertebrae have longer and heavier transverse processes and are characterized by their articulating surfaces with the ribs. The lumbar vertebrae have pedicles and laminae that are shorter and thicker than those of other vertebrae, the vertebral foramen is triangular, and spinous processes are short. 8.) Intervertebral discs allow the spine to flex and extend and to a lesser extent, to bend laterally. They enhance the flexibility in the lumbar and cervical regions. 9.) Nucleus pulposus gives the disc its elasticity and compressibility. Annulus fibrosus limits the expansion of the nucleus pulposus when the spine is compressed. It acts like a woven strap to bind successive vertebrae together, withstands twisting forces, and resists tension in the spine. Nucleus pulposus provides durability and strength. Annulus fibrosus provides resilience and is involved in a “slipped” disc. 10.) True ribs are superior seven pairs of ribs that attach directly to the sternum by individual costal cartilages. False ribs are the last five pairs of ribs inferior to the true ribs and named false, because they attach to the sternum indirectly, or not at all. 11.) The major function of the pelvic girdle is to support the visceral organs of the pelvis and transmit the full weight of the upper body to the lower limbs. The shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle are both ball and socket joints, but since the shoulder girdle allows for more flexibility, we can swing our arms in a full 360 degree circle. The pelvic girdle lacks the mobility of the shoulder girdle, but is far more stable. Even though they have similar anatomical structures, it is the small differences, such as deep and cuplike sockets in...
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