Chapter 52 Guided Reading
1. Define the following terms:
a. Population: localized group of individuals that belong to the same biological species
b. Density: number of individuals per unit or volume
c. Dispersion: pattern of spacing among individuals with geographic population boundaries.
d. Mark-recapture method: sampling technique used to estimate wildlife populations.
e. Immigration: influx of new individuals from other areas
f. Emigration: movement of individuals out of a population
g. Territoriality: behavior in which an animal defends a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals, usually of its own species
2. What are the three patterns of dispersion and what conclusions can you draw from these patterns?
The three patterns of dispersion are clumped, uniform, and random. Clumped is when animals live in groups increasing the effectiveness of hunting, spreads the work of protecting and caring for the young. It helps them exclude other individuals from their territory. Uniform is evenly spaced, pattern of dispersion may result from direct interactions between individuals in the population. Random dispersion occurs in the absence of strong attractions or repulsions among individuals of a population.
3. Define the following terms:
a. Demography: study of the statistics relating to births and deaths of a population
b. Life tables: table of data summarizing mortality in a population
c. Survivorship curves: plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age
d. Reproductive table: age-specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population
e. Life history: series of events from birth through reproduction and death
4. Use the diagram below – label the three different survivorship curves – give an example of an animal that fits the curve and an explanation of why they fit the curve. [pic]
I. Humans and other larger mammals - produce few offspring put provide them with good care reflect low death rates during early and middle life, then drops steeply as death rates increase with older age. II. Squirrels, other rodents, various invertebrates - constant death rate over life span III. Oysters, many fishes and marine invertabrates - produce very large number of offspring but provide little or no care reflects high death rates for young but death rates that decline from those who survive.
5. Compare and contrast semelparity and iteroparity – give advantages of each as they apply to an example organism – focus on the adaptive benefit of the life history. Are there any disadvantages? This is a core concept. semelparity: A life history in which adults have but a single reproductive opportunity to produce large numbers of offspring.
Advantages: The salmon produce thousands of small eggs in a single reproductive opportunity and then die. Because the salmon have a low survival rate for offspring the semelparity is best because with such a large number of offspring there is a chance that at least some will survive.
Disadvantages: The offspring does not receive parental care and therefore have a hard time surviving.
iteroparity: A life history in which adults produce large numbers of offspring over many years.
Advantages: Lizards live in a dependable environment where competition for resources may be intense. In these environments, a few, well-provisioned offspring will have a better chance of surviving to reproductive age. Basically they live in environments where it is better to have a few offspring one year and repeat reproduction next year and many years after that. 6. What is zero population growth?
Occurs when per capita birth and death rates are equal.
7. What is exponential population growth?...