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The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Changes on the Western Frontier
The culture of the Plains Indians declines as white settlers transform the Great Plains. Meanwhile, farmers form the Populist movement to address their economic concerns.

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Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Changes on the Western Frontier
SECTION 1

Cultures Clash on the Prairie

SECTION 2

Settling on the Great Plains

SECTION 3

Farmers and the Populist Movement

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The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Section-1

Cultures Clash on the Prairie
The cattle industry booms in the late 1800s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declines.

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The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Section-1

Cultures Clash on the Prairie
The Culture of the Plains Indians
Life on the Plains
• Great Plains—grasslands in west-central portion of the U.S. • East: hunting, farming villages; west: nomadic hunting, gathering

The Horse and the Buffalo
• Horses, guns lead most Plains tribes to nomadic life by mid-1700s • Trespassing others’ hunting lands causes war; count coup for status • Buffalo provides many basic needs:
— worship without formal ministers
— meat used for jerky, pemmican

Continued…
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The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Section-1

The Culture of the Plains Indians {continued}
Family Life
• Form family groups with ties to other bands that speak same language • Men are hunters, warriors; women butcher meat, prepare hides • Believe in powerful spirits that control natural world
— men or women can become shamans
• Children learn through myths, stories, games, example
• Communal life; leaders rule by counsel

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The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Section-1

Settlers Push Westward
Clash of Cultures
• Native Americans: land cannot be owned; settlers: want to own land • Settlers think natives forfeited land because did not improve it • Since consider land unsettled, migrants go west to claim it

The Lure of Silver and Gold
• 1858 discovery of gold in Colorado draws tens of thousands • Mining camps, tiny frontier towns have filthy, ramshackle dwellings • Fortune seekers of different cultures, races; mostly men

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The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Section-1

The Government Restricts Native Americans
Railroads Influence Government Policy
• 1834, government designates Great Plains as one huge reservation • 1850s, treaties define specific boundaries for each tribe

Massacre at Sand Creek
• Troops kill over 150 Cheyenne, Arapaho at Sand Creek winter camp

Continued…
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The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Section-1

The Government Restricts Native Americans {continued}
Death on the Bozeman Trail
• Bozeman Trail crosses Sioux hunting grounds
— men or women can become shamans
• Treaty of Fort Laramie—U.S. closes trail; Sioux to reservation • Sitting Bull, leader of Hunkpapa Sioux, does not sign treaty

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The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century
Chapter 5

Section-1

Bloody Battles Continue
Red River War
• 1868, Kiowa, Comanche engage in 6 years of raiding
• 1874–1875, U. S. Army crushes resistance on Plains in Red River War

Gold Rush
• 1874...